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    Head & Neck Surgery

    The Brooklyn Hospital Center's Division of Head and Neck Surgery manages the diagnosis and surgical treatment of benign and malignant tumors of the head and neck. Staffed by a team of highly capable sur ...

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Prostate cancer

Definition

Prostate cancer is cancer that starts in the prostate gland. The prostate is a small, walnut-sized structure that makes up part of a man's reproductive system. It wraps around the urethra. This is the tube that carries urine out of the body.

Alternative Names

Cancer - prostate; Biopsy - prostate; Prostate biopsy; Gleason score

Causes

Prostate cancer is the most common cause of death from cancer in men over age 75. Prostate cancer is rarely found in men younger than 40.

People who are at high risk include:

Other people at risk include:

Prostate cancer is less common in people who do not eat meat (vegetarians).

A common problem in almost all men as they grow older is an enlarged prostate. This is called benign prostatic hyperplasia, or BPH. It does not raise your risk of prostate cancer. But it can increase your prostate-specific antigen (PSA) blood test result.

Symptoms

With early prostate cancer, there are often no symptoms.

The PSA blood test may done to screen men for prostate cancer. Often, PSA level rises before there are any symptoms.

The symptoms listed below can occur with prostate cancer as it grows larger in the prostate. These symptoms can also be caused by other prostate problems:

When the cancer has spread, there may be bone pain or tenderness, most often in the lower back and pelvic bones.

Exams and Tests

An abnormal digital rectal exam may be the only sign of prostate cancer.

A biopsy is needed to tell if you have prostate cancer. A biopsy is a procedure to remove a sample of tissue from the prostate. The sample is sent to a lab for examination. It will be done in your doctor's office.

Your doctor may recommend a biopsy if:

The biopsy result is reported using what is called a Gleason grade and a Gleason score.

The Gleason grade tells you how fast the cancer might spread. It grades tumors on a scale of 1 through 5. You may have different grades of cancer in one biopsy sample. The two most common grades are added together. This gives you the Gleason score. The higher your Gleason score, the more likely the cancer can spread beyond the prostate:

The following tests may be done to determine whether the cancer has spread:

The PSA blood test will also be used to monitor your cancer after treatment.

Treatment

Treatment depends on many things, including your Gleason score and your overall health. Your doctor will discuss your treatment options.

If the cancer has not spread outside the prostate gland, common treatments include:

If you are older, your doctor may recommend simply monitoring the cancer with PSA tests and biopsies.

If the prostate cancer has spread, treatment may include hormone therapy (medicines to reduce testosterone levels). It may be used for all but the earliest stage of prostate cancer. It may be given before, along with, or after other treatments.

If prostate cancer spreads even after hormone therapy, surgery, or radiation has been tried, treatment may include:

Surgery, radiation therapy, and hormone therapy can affect your sexual performance. Problems with urine control are possible after surgery and radiation therapy. Discuss your concerns with your health care provider.

After treatment for prostate cancer, you will be closely watched to make sure the cancer does not spread. This involves routine checkups, including PSA blood tests (usually every 3 months to 1 year).

Support Groups

You can ease the stress of illness by joining a prostate cancer support group. Sharing with others who have common experiences and problems can help you not feel alone.

Outlook (Prognosis)

How well you do depends on whether the cancer has spread outside the prostate gland and how abnormal the cancer cells are (the Gleason score) when you are diagnosed.

A cure is possible if the cancer has not spread. Hormone treatment can improve survival, even if a cure is not possible.

When to Contact a Medical Professional

Discuss the advantages and disadvantages of PSA screening with your health care provider.

Prevention

Talk with your health care provider about possible ways to lower your risk of prostate cancer. These may include lifestyle measures, such as diet and exercise.

Taking extra vitamin E has not been found to reduce the risk of prostate cancer and may increase the risk. Talk with your doctor before taking larger doses of this vitamin.

There are no medicines approved by the FDA for preventing prostate cancer.

References

American Urological Association Education and Research, Inc. PSA testing for the pretreatment staging and posttreatment management of prostate cancer: 2013 Revision of 2009 Best Practice Statement. Linthicum, MD: American Urological Association Education and Research, Inc. 2013. Available at: http://www.auanet.org/common/pdf/education/clinical-guidance/Prostate-Specific-Antigen.pdf. Accessed October 3, 2013.

Drake CG. Immunotherapy for prostate cancer: an emerging treatment modality. Urol Clin N Am. 2010:37121–37129.

Eastham JA, Scardino PT. Expectant management of prostate cancer. In: Wein AJ, Kavoussi LR, Novick AC, et al., eds. Campbell-Walsh Urology. 10th ed. Philadelphia, Pa: Elsevier Saunders; 2011:chap 101.

Klein EA, Thompson IM Jr, Tangen CM, et al. Vitamin E and the risk of prostate cancer: the Selenium and Vitamin E Cancer Prevention Trial (SELECT). JAMA. 2011;306:1549-1556.

Loeb S, Carter HB. Early detection, diagnosis, and staging of prostate cancer. In: Wein AJ, Kavoussi LR, Novick AC, et al., eds. Campbell-Walsh Urology. 10th ed. Philadelphia, Pa: Elsevier Saunders; 2011:chap 99.

National Cancer Institute: PDQ Prostate Cancer Treatment. Bethesda, MD: National Cancer Institute. Date last modified 08/15/2013. Available at: http://www.cancer.gov/cancertopics/pdq/treatment/prostate/HealthProfessional. Accessed October 28, 2013.

National Comprehensive Cancer Network. NCCN Clinical Practice Guidelines in Oncology (NCCN Guidelines): Prostate cancer. Version 4.2013. Available at: http://www.nccn.org/professionals/physician_gls/pdf/prostate.pdf. Accessed October 28, 2013.

Nelson WG, Carter HB, DeWeese TL, Eisenberger MA. Prostate cancer. In: Abeloff MD, Armitage JO, Niederhuber JE, et al., eds. Abeloff’s Clinical Oncology. 4th ed. Philadelphia, Pa: Elsevier Churchill Livingstone; 2008:chap 88.



Review Date: 10/2/2013
Reviewed By: Scott Miller, MD, Urologist in private practice in Atlanta, Georgia. Also reviewed by David Zieve, MD, MHA, Bethanne Black, and the A.D.A.M. Editorial team.
The information provided herein should not be used during any medical emergency or for the diagnosis or treatment of any medical condition. A licensed medical professional should be consulted for diagnosis and treatment of any and all medical conditions. Links to other sites are provided for information only -- they do not constitute endorsements of those other sites. © 1997- A.D.A.M., Inc. Any duplication or distribution of the information contained herein is strictly prohibited.
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