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Colon and rectal cancers

Highlights

Colorectal Cancer Screening Guidelines

A number of major organizations, including The American Cancer Society (ACS), The U.S. Preventive Services Task Force (USPSTP), the American College of Physicians, and The American College of Gastroenterology (ACG), have developed guidelines related to screening for colorectal cancer. While there are some differences among these guidelines, they generally recommend that adults ages 50 to 75 who are at average risk for colorectal cancer should be screened with one of these methods:

Stool DNA Test Approved

In 2014, the FDA approved Cologuard, the first stool DNA screening test for colorectal cancer. The home-based test uses a stool sample to check for the presence of blood and DNA changes that may indicate cancer. If abnormal DNA is found, a colonoscopy is needed.

Follow-Up Care Guidelines

In 2013, the American Society of Clinical Oncology released guidelines for follow-up care. People should receive follow-up care for the 5 years following treatment of colon cancer to monitor for any signs of cancer recurrence. The guidelines recommend specific schedules for:

Introduction

Cancers of the colon and rectum, often collectively referred to as colorectal cancer, are life-threatening tumors that develop in the large intestine.

More than 90% of colorectal tumors develop from a type of polyp called adenomatous polyps. There are many types of polyps. They are common, mostly non-cancerous (benign) tumors. Adenomatous polyps, also called adenomas, are a specific type of polyp that has a greater likelihood of changing into cancer. Because of this risk, adenomas are considered precancerous.

Adenomas are gland-like growths that develop on the mucous membrane that lines the large intestine. They are usually either:

When adenomas become malignant (cancerous), they are referred to as adenocarcinomas. Adenocarcinomas are cancers that originate in glandular tissue cells. Adenocarcinoma is the most common type of colorectal cancer.

Digestion takes place in the gastrointestinal (GI) tract, which is basically a long tube that extends from the mouth to the anus. It is a complex organ system that first carries food from the mouth down the esophagus to the stomach. Food then travels through the small and large intestines before being excreted through the rectum and out the anus.

Digestive system

The esophagus, stomach, and large and small intestine, aided by the liver, gallbladder, and pancreas, convert the nutritive components of food into energy and break down the non-nutritive components into waste to be excreted.

The esophagus is a narrow muscular tube, about 9 1/2 inches long, that begins below the tongue and ends at the stomach.

In the stomach, acids and stomach motion break food down into particles small enough so that the small intestine can absorb nutrients.


The small intestine, despite its name, is the longest part of the gastrointestinal tract. It extends from the stomach to the large intestine and is about 20 feet long. Food passes from the stomach through the small intestine's three parts: first the duodenum, then the jejunum, and finally the ileum. Most of the digestive process occurs in the small intestine.


Undigested material, such as plant fiber, is passed next to the large intestine, or colon, mostly in liquid form. The colon is wider than the small intestine but only about 6 feet long. The colon absorbs excess water and salts into the blood. The remaining waste matter is converted to feces through bacterial action. The colon is a continuous structure but it is characterized as having several components.

Cecum and Appendix: The cecum is the first part of the colon after the small intestine. The appendix is attached to the cecum. These structures are located in the lower-right part of the abdomen. The colon continues onward in several sections:


Rectum and Anus: Feces are stored in the descending and sigmoid colon until they are passed through the rectum and anus. The rectum extends through the pelvis from the end of the sigmoid colon to the anus.

Causes

In most cases of colon or rectal cancers, the cause or causes are unknown. Defects in genes that normally protect against cancer play the major role in causing polyp cells to change and become cancerous.

Sometimes these cancerous changes are caused by inherited genetic defects, and are associated with family histories of colorectal cancer. However, most of the genetic mutations involved in colon cancers appear to arise spontaneously (no strong family history) rather than being inherited. In such cases, environmental or other factors may trigger genetic changes in the intestine that lead to cancer.

Risk Factors and Prevention

Colorectal cancer is the third most common cancer in the United States. 72% of colorectal cancers occur in the colon and 28% in the rectum.

Rates of colorectal cancer have been decreasing in the United States. This is due in part to more people getting regular screenings for colorectal cancer, and fewer people engaging in risk factors, such as smoking. However, many people age 50 years and older still do not receive their recommended screenings.

Colorectal cancer risk increases with age. More than 90% of these cancers occur in people over age 50.

Men have a slightly higher risk than women for developing colorectal cancer.

African-Americans have the highest risk of being diagnosed with, and dying from, colorectal cancer. Among Caucasians, Jews of Eastern European (Ashkenazi) descent have a higher rate of colorectal cancer. Asian Americans/Pacific Islanders, Hispanics/Latinos, and American Indians/Alaska Natives have a lower risk than Caucasians.

20 to 25% of colorectal cancers occur among people with a family history of the disease. People who have more than one first-degree relative (sibling or parent) with the disease are especially at high risk. The risk is even higher if the relative was diagnosed with colorectal cancer before the age of 60.

A small percentage of people with colorectal cancer have an inherited genetic abnormality that causes the disease. Syndromes associated with genetic mutations include familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP) and hereditary nonpolyposis colorectal cancer (HNPCC).

Colon cancer is more common in developed nations than less developed countries. "Western" lifestyle factors are most likely the reason. Diets high in red and processed meats, lack of physical activity, excess weight, and smoking are all associated with an increased risk for colorectal cancer.

Dietary Factors: A diet high in red and processed meats increases the risk for colorectal cancer. Diets high in fruits and vegetables may help reduce risk. The evidence is mixed on whether high intake of dietary fiber is protective. It is also not clear whether there is an association between colorectal cancer risk and deficiencies of the B vitamin folic acid. In any case, neither folic acid nor fiber supplements appear to lower the risk for colorectal cancer. The best sources for dietary fiber and vitamins are fruits, vegetables, nuts, and whole grains.

Alcohol and Smoking: Excessive alcohol use and long-term smoking increase the risk for colorectal cancer.

Obesity: Obesity is associated with an increased risk for colorectal cancer, especially for men.

Physical Inactivity: A sedentary lifestyle increases the risk of developing colorectal cancer. Regular exercise may help reduce risk.

Adenomatous Polyps (Adenomas): People who have had adenomas have an increased risk of developing colorectal cancer. When these polyps are detected during a colonoscopy or sigmoidoscopy they can be removed before they turn cancerous.

Inflammatory Bowel Disease (IBD): IBDs include Crohn disease and ulcerative colitis. The long-term inflammation caused by these chronic disorders can increase the risk for colorectal cancer. IBD is different from irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), which does not increase colorectal cancer risk.

Diabetes: Many studies have identified an association between type 2 diabetes and colon cancer. Both diseases share the common risk factors of obesity and physical inactivity, but diabetes itself is a risk factor for colorectal cancer.

Colorectal cancer screenings are a very important preventive measure. Healthy lifestyle measures are also important. For people with certain types of colorectal cancer risk factors, preventive medications may be helpful.

Lifestyle Changes and Prevention: The best way to prevent colorectal cancer is to engage in a healthy lifestyle, which include:

Medications and Prevention: Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) are commonly used pain relievers that include aspirin, ibuprofen (Advil, Motrin, generic), naproxen (Aleve, generic), and the COX-2 inhibitor celecoxib (Celebrex).

Symptoms

It is common to have colon or rectal cancer without symptoms. Many people are free of symptoms until their tumors are quite advanced.

Symptoms associated with colorectal cancer may also be caused by other conditions. These symptoms include:

Diagnosis and Screening

Colon and rectal cancers can be detected early using the screening tests discussed below. These tests can find precancerous polyps and colorectal cancers at stages early enough for complete removal and cure.

The American Cancer Society (ACS), the U.S. Preventive Services Task Force (USPSTF), the American College of Physicians, and the American College of Gastroenterology (ACG) all have made similar, although not identical, recommendations concerning screening for colorectal cancer.

Discuss with your health care provider whether you are at average- or high-risk for colorectal cancer, and which screening test and schedule is most appropriate for you. (See descriptions of screening tests below for more information about the individual tests.)

Screening for Adults with Average Risk for Colorectal Cancer

General age recommendations for colorectal cancer screening are:

Several options and schedules for screening are recommended. The choices include:

Stool tests are another approved way to screen for colon cancer. Several options are available:

If a stool test shows an abnormal result, a colonoscopy is required

Screening for Adults at High-Risk for Colorectal Cancer

People at high risk for colorectal cancer should undergo colonoscopy for screening. The most important risk factors that may prompt screening before age 50 or frequent screenings are:

People in these high-risk groups who have changes that are identified as precancerous during colonoscopy will likely have their doctors discuss with them the possibility of a preventive (prophylactic) colectomy (removal of the entire colon).

Colonoscopy: Colonoscopy allows a doctor to view the entire length of the large intestine using a colonoscope, which is inserted into the rectum and snaked through the intestine. A colonoscope is a long, flexible tube that has a video camera at one end. The doctor views images from the colonoscope on a video display monitor.

The test takes about 30 minutes to perform. If polyps are found, the doctor will remove them. The person is given a sedative prior to the test, which produces a comfortable "twilight" sleep.

In order for the doctor to perform a successful colonoscopy, the colon and rectum must be completely empty. Your doctor will give you instructions for how to prepare during the days preceding the tests, and specific foods and liquids to avoid eating and drinking. The day before the test you will be given a laxative solution to clean out the colon. Many people find this cleansing more unpleasant than the colonoscopy itself.

Colonoscopy is generally a safe procedure. In very rare cases, complications, such as bowel perforation, can occur.

Flexible Sigmoidoscopy: Sigmoidoscopy is similar to colonoscopy but only examines the rectum and the lower 2 feet of the colon. (In contrast, colonoscopy allows the doctor to view the entire colon.) The procedure takes about 10 to 20 minutes, and sedation is optional. Preparation procedures are less demanding than those for colonoscopy.

Double-Contrast Barium Enema (DCBE): The DCBE test uses an x-ray to image the entire large intestine. The test takes about 30 to 45 minutes, and sedation is not required. Preparations are similar to those for colonoscopy and sigmoidoscopy. For the test, barium sulfate is inserted into the rectum using a small, flexible tube. The colon is then pumped with air to help the barium spread through the colon. If polyps are detected in the x-ray, your doctor may recommend you have a colonoscopy for further investigation and polyp removal.

Virtual Colonoscopy: Virtual colonoscopy, also called CT colonoscopy, uses x-rays delivered by computed tomography (CT) scan to take three-dimensional images of the colon. The test takes only 10 minutes to perform, and does not require sedation. (It does require the same preparations as standard colonoscopy to clean out the colon and bowel.) Air is pumped into the rectum through a small flexible tube. The person is then slid into a CT scanner, which takes rapid images. If polyps are detected, a standard colonoscopy is required.

Fecal Occult Blood Test (FOBT): A FOBT is a take-home test that uses stool samples to detect hidden (occult) blood in feces. It may detect small amounts of blood in stool from polyps or a tumor, even when stools appear normal. Your doctor will give you a kit with instructions on how to take stool samples and prepare them. Your doctor will also inform you about what medications and foods need to be avoided in the days prior to the test. The test kit and samples are sent to a laboratory and results usually come back in a short time. If blood is found in the stool samples, you will need to have a colonoscopy.

Fecal Immunochemical Test (FIT): The FIT is a take-home test for hidden (occult) blood. The test is similar to the FOBT, but people do not need to follow medication or dietary restrictions. As with the FOBT, a colonoscopy is recommended if blood is found in the stool.

Stool DNA Test (sDNA): Like the FIT and the FOBT, the sDNA test is done at home and uses fecal samples. No dietary restrictions or test prep are required. Unlike FIT and FOBT, which require multiple stool samples, the sDNA test uses only one bowel movement. In addition to testing for the presence of blood, this test looks for abnormalities in genetic material associated with cancer or precancerous polyps. If DNA mutations are found, a colonoscopy is needed. The first sDNA test was approved by the FDA in 2014. Medicare will cover the test but some insurance carriers may not pay for the full cost.

A doctor makes a diagnosis of colorectal cancer based on results of several types of tests. These tests include:

Biopsy: During a colonoscopy, the doctor can remove a tissue sample, which is sent to a laboratory for testing. A biopsy is the only way to definitively diagnose colorectal cancer.

Blood Tests: Blood tests are used to check for anemia (red blood cell count). The presence of anemia without any other obvious cause being present will usually require further evaluation of the gastrointestinal tract for a possible cancer. Blood tests are also used to check for specific tumor markers, substances that are released into the blood from cancer cells. Tumor markers include:

These tests may help your doctor monitor for recurrences of colon cancer after treatment. By themselves, they cannot diagnose cancer and are not used as screening tests.

Imaging Tests: Various types of imaging tests can help detect the presence of cancer or find out how far the cancer has spread. These tests include:

Treatment

A diagnosis of cancer will lead to staging and other tests to help determine the outlook and the appropriate treatments. Treatment for colorectal cancer can include surgery, chemotherapy, radiation or a combination of these methods.

There are several methods for staging colorectal cancer. The older system, known as Dukes', categorizes four basic stages: A, B, C, and D. The newer TMN system evaluates the tumor (T), lymph node (N), and how far the cancer has spread or metastasized (M). The results of TMN are combined to determine the stage of the cancer. The stage correlates with the type of treatment recommended as well as the overall prognosis.

Colorectal cancer stages and treatment options are:

Stage 0 (Carcinoma in situ)

Stage I

Stage II

Stage III

Stage IV

Colorectal cancer is among the most curable of cancers when it is caught in its early stages. The term "5-year survival" means that people have lived at least 5 years since diagnosis. The 5-year survival rate for colon cancer diagnosed and treated at stage I is 90%. The rates fall to 70% for stage II and stage III, and 12% for stage IV. However, there are other factors besides stage that can affect a person's prognosis.

After cancer treatment concludes, follow-up care is important to detect any signs of cancer recurrence. The American Society of Clinical Oncology (ASCO) has follow-up care guidelines for people treated for stage II or stage III colorectal cancer. Stage I cancer is less likely to recur. The guidelines recommend:

Timing: Follow-up care is recommended for the 5 years following treatment. 80% of colorectal cancer recurrences are discovered 2 to 3 years after surgery, and 95% of recurrences are found within 5 years. In addition to checking for signs of cancer, follow-up care can help monitor for any long-term side effects from treatment. Discuss with your health care provider what type of follow-up care you may need after 5 years.

Physical Examination: You should see your provider for a physical examination every 3 to 6 months for the first 5 years after treatment is completed.

CEA Blood Test: Carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) levels should be measured every 3 to 6 months for 5 years. CEA is a protein that is found in the blood and is associated with cancer. High CEA levels in the blood may indicate that the cancer has recurred or has spread to other parts of the body.

Imaging Tests: A computerized tomography (CT) scan of the abdomen and chest should be performed every year for the first 3 years after treatment. (People at higher risk for recurrence should get a CT scan every 6 to 12 months during this time.) For rectal cancer, a pelvic CT scan is recommended every 6 to 12 months for the first 3 years, and then every year for the 4th and 5th year.

Colonoscopy and Rectosigmoidoscopy: You will need a colonoscopy 1 year after surgery. After that, most people will have a colonoscopy once every 5 years. However, if your colonoscopy reveals polyps or other abnormal findings, you may need more frequent screenings.

A flexible sigmoidoscopy of the rectum (rectosigmoidoscopy) is recommended every 6 months for 5 years for people with rectal cancer who did not receive radiation therapy. Depending on your risk of recurrence, rectosigmoidoscopy may also be recommended even if you were not treated with radiation.

Healthy Lifestyle: Be sure to follow measures to promote good health. This includes:

Surgery

In the earliest stages of colorectal cancer (stage 0 and some stage I cases) polyps can be removed during a colonoscopy in a procedure called a polypectomy. Early-stage superficial cancers that are not deep can also be removed through excision, where the cancer is cut out and removed during colonoscopy. Unlike colectomy, these procedures do not involve cutting through the abdominal wall.

Surgical removal of the tumor (resection) along with any affected surrounding tissue is the standard initial treatment for potentially curable colorectal cancers (cancers that have not spread beyond the colon or lymph nodes). Adjuvant (following surgery) chemotherapy or radiation treatment may also be given.

Although choosing a qualified surgeon is critical, choosing a hospital experienced in colorectal cancer surgery procedures is also important.

Unless colon cancer is very advanced, most tumors are removed by an operation known as colectomy:

Colon cancer - series

The Surgical Approach: The standard technique for a colectomy is open, invasive surgery. Laparoscopy, sometimes called "keyhole surgery," is a newer, and less invasive, method:

Recuperation and Side Effects: After a colectomy, you will need to stay in the hospital until you regain normal bowel function and can eat and drink normally. The hospital stay is usually about 4 to 7 days. You will first be fed through a tube, and then transition to a liquid diet followed by soft, low-fiber foods and eventually normal foods. There are usually no dietary restrictions after recovery.

Colectomy is abdominal surgery and it is normal to feel weak for several weeks afterwards. Daily short walks with increasing distances are encouraged. It may take 4 to 6 weeks for full recovery.


Large bowel resection - series

A colostomy is performed to bypass or remove the lower colon and rectum. Colostomy is a surgical procedure that brings one end of the large intestine out through the abdominal wall. The surgeon creates a passage, called a stoma, through the abdominal wall that is connected to the colon.

Feces and gas moving through the intestine pass through the stoma and drain into a special colostomy bag (ostomy pouch) that is attached to the stoma. The bag needs to be emptied several times a day. You will be taught how to keep the area around the stoma clean so as to avoid infection.

Usually the colostomy is temporary and can be reversed by a second operation after about 3 to 6 months. Less commonly, if the rectum and sphincter muscles in the rectum need to be removed, the colostomy is permanent. The need for colostomies (especially permanent ones) is higher after surgery for rectal cancer than for colon cancer.

Colostomy - series

Surgical treatments for cancer in the rectum are complex since they involve muscles and tissue that are critical for urinary, bowel, and sexual function.

As with colon cancer, early-stage tumors may be removed through local excision or polypectomy. Surgery for more advanced cancers involves cutting away the diseased part of the rectum (rectal resection, also known as proctectomy.)

After rectal resection, the surgeon will perform either an:

Depending on the extent and location of the cancer, other surgical procedures may be performed. In very severe cases, if the cancer has spread beyond the rectum to nearby organs, a pelvic exenteration may be required. This involves removal of the rectum, anus, bladder, and urethra as well as male prostate or female reproductive organs.

Chemotherapy

The main chemotherapy drugs used for colorectal cancer treatment are:

Capecitabine is a pill form of 5-FU. The other drugs are administered intravenously. Many of these drugs are given in combination with each other. Common chemotherapy combination regimens include:

Side effects occur with all chemotherapy drugs and can usually be treated with other medications. Side effects are more severe with higher doses and increase over the course of treatment. Because cancer cells grow and divide rapidly, chemotherapy drugs work by killing fast-growing cells. This means that healthy cells that multiply quickly can also be affected.

Nausea, vomiting, and fatigue are very common side effects. Other side effects can vary depending on the drug used:

"Targeted therapies" work on a molecular level by blocking specific mechanisms associated with cancer cell growth and division. Traditional chemotherapy drugs can be effective, but because they do not distinguish between healthy and cancerous cells, their generalized toxicity can cause very severe side effects. The biologic drugs used in targeted therapy also cause side effects, but they tend to be less severe.

Biologic drugs approved for colorectal cancer are:

Radiation

Radiation therapy is used more often for rectal cancer than for colon cancer.

Radiation therapy is not a common treatment for colon cancer. The main use for radiation therapy in people with colon cancer is when the cancer has attached to an internal organ or the lining of the abdomen. When this occurs radiation therapy may be used after surgery (adjuvant radiation) to kill any cancer cells that may still remain.

For rectal cancer, radiation therapy is given for various situations:

Radiation therapy uses external or internal sources of radiation to kill cancer cells:

Side effects of radiation may include:

Resources

References

American Cancer Society. Colorectal Cancer Facts & Figures 2014-2016. Atlanta, GA: American Cancer Society, 2014.

Aune D, Chan DS, Lau R, Vieira R, Greenwood DC, Kampman E, et al. Dietary fibre, whole grains, and risk of colorectal cancer: systematic review and dose-response meta-analysis of prospective studies. BMJ. 2011 Nov 10;343:d6617.

Biagi JJ, Raphael MJ, Mackillop WJ, Kong W, King WD, Booth CM. Association between time to initiation of adjuvant chemotherapy and survival in colorectal cancer: a systematic review and meta-analysis. JAMA. 2011 Jun 8;305(22):2335-42.

Botteri E, Iodice S, Bagnardi V, Raimondi S, Lowenfels AB, Maisonneuve P. Smoking and colorectal cancer: a meta-analysis. JAMA. 2008 Dec 17;300(23):2765-78.

Chan AT, Ogino S, Fuchs CS. Aspirin use and survival after diagnosis of colorectal cancer. JAMA. 2009 Aug 12;302(6):649-58.

Cima RR, Pemberton JH. Ileostomy, colostomy, and pouches. In: Feldman M, Friedman LS, Brandt LJ, eds. Sleisenger & Fordtran's Gastrointestinal and Liver Disease. 9th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2010: chap 113.

Cunningham D, Atkin W, Lenz HJ, Lynch HT, Minsky B, Nordlinger B, et al. Colorectal cancer. Lancet. 2010 Mar 20;375(9719):1030-47.

Cuzick J, Otto F, Baron JA, Brown PH, Burn J, Greenwald P, et al. Aspirin and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs for cancer prevention: an international consensus statement. Lancet Oncol. 2009 May;10(5):501-7.

Dahm CC, Keogh RH, Spencer EA, Greenwood DC, Key TJ, Fentiman IS, et al. Dietary fiber and colorectal cancer risk: a nested case-control study using food diaries. J Natl Cancer Inst. 2010 May 5;102(9):614-26. Epub 2010 Apr 20.

Edwards BK, Ward E, Kohler BA, Eheman C, Zauber AG, Anderson RN, et al. Annual report to the nation on the status of cancer, 1975-2006, featuring colorectal cancer trends and impact of interventions (risk factors, screening, and treatment) to reduce future rates. Cancer. 2010 Feb 1;116(3):544-73.

Fry RD, Mahmoud N, Maron DJ, Bleier JIS. Colon and Rectum. In: Townsend CM, Beauchamp RD, Evers BM, Mattox KL, eds. Sabiston Textbook of Surgery. 19th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2012: chap 52.

Imperiale TF, Ransohoff DF, Itzkowitz SH, Levin TR, Lavin P, Lidgard GP, et al. Multitarget stool DNA testing for colorectal-cancer screening. N Engl J Med. 2014 Apr 3;370(14):1287-97. Epub 2014 Mar 19. PMID: 24645800 www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24645800.

Karapetis CS, Khambata-Ford S, Jonker DJ, O'Callaghan CJ, Tu D, Tebbutt NC, et al. K-ras mutations and benefit from cetuximab in advanced colorectal cancer. N Engl J Med. 2008 Oct 23;359(17):1757-65.

Kirkegaard H, Johnsen NF, Christensen J, Frederiksen K, Overvad K, Tjønneland A. Association of adherence to lifestyle recommendations and risk of colorectal cancer: a prospective Danish cohort study. BMJ. 2010 Oct 26;341:c5504.

Kushi LH, Doyle C, McCullough M, Rock CL, Demark-Wahnefried W, Bandera EV, et al. American Cancer Society Guidelines on nutrition and physical activity for cancer prevention: reducing the risk of cancer with healthy food choices and physical activity. CA Cancer J Clin. 2012 Jan-Feb;62(1):30-67.

Lieberman DA, Rex DK, Winawer SJ, Giardiello FM, Johnson DA, Levin TR; United States Multi-Society Task Force on Colorectal Cancer. Guidelines for colonoscopy surveillance after screening and polypectomy: a consensus update by the US Multi-Society Task Force on Colorectal Cancer. Gastroenterology. 2012 Sep;143(3):844-57. Epub 2012 Jul 3.

Meyerhardt JA, Mangu PB, Flynn PJ, Korde L, Loprinzi CL, Minsky BD, et al. Follow-up care, surveillance protocol, and secondary prevention measures for survivors of colorectal cancer: American Society of Clinical Oncology clinical practice guideline endorsement. J Clin Oncol. 2013 Dec 10;31(35):4465-70. Epub 2013 Nov 12. PMID: 24220554 www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24220554.

National Comprehensive Cancer Network. NCCN Clinical Practice Guidelines in Oncology: Colon Cancer. Version 2. 2014.

National Comprehensive Cancer Network. NCCN Clinical Practice Guidelines in Oncology: Rectal Cancer. Version 2. 2014.

Nishihara R, Wu K, Lochhead P, Morikawa T, Liao X, Qian ZR, et al. Long-term colorectal-cancer incidence and mortality after lower endoscopy. N Engl J Med. 2013 Sep 19;369(12):1095-105.

Qaseem A, Denberg TD, Hopkins RH Jr, Humphrey LL, Levine J, Sweet DE, et al. Screening for colorectal cancer: a guidance statement from the American College of Physicians. Ann Intern Med. 2012 Mar 6;156(5):378-86.

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Smith RA, Brooks D, Cokkinides V, Saslow D, Brawley OW. Cancer screening in the United States, 2013: a review of current American Cancer Society guidelines, current issues in cancer screening, and new guidance on cervical cancer screening and lung cancer screening. CA Cancer J Clin. 2013 Mar-Apr;63(2):88-105. Epub 2013 Feb 1.

U.S. Preventive Services Task Force. Routine aspirin or nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs for the primary prevention of colorectal cancer: U.S. Preventive Services Task Force recommendation statement. Ann Intern Med. 2007 Mar 6;146(5):361-4.

U.S. Preventive Services Task Force. Screening for colorectal cancer: U.S. Preventive Services Task Force recommendation statement. Ann Intern Med. 2008 Nov 4;149(9):627-37. Epub 2008 Oct 6.

Van Schaeybroeck S, Lawler M, Johnston B, et al. Colorectal cancer. In: Niederhuber JE, Armitage JO, Doroshow JH, Kastan MB, eds. Abeloff's Clinical Oncology. 5th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Churchill-Livingstone; 2013:chap 77.



Review Date: 1/20/2015
Reviewed By: Yi-Bin Chen, MD, Leukemia/Bone Marrow Transplant Program, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, MA. Also reviewed by David Zieve, MD, MHA, Isla Ogilvie, PhD, and the A.D.A.M. Editorial team.
The information provided herein should not be used during any medical emergency or for the diagnosis or treatment of any medical condition. A licensed medical professional should be consulted for diagnosis and treatment of any and all medical conditions. Links to other sites are provided for information only -- they do not constitute endorsements of those other sites. © 1997- A.D.A.M., Inc. Any duplication or distribution of the information contained herein is strictly prohibited.
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    and balance problems frequent falls and gait disorders foot ulcers and oth ...

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    tent above is based on Adam Health Content, for  more details related to  ...

  5. Diabetes

    el.   The content above is based on Adam Health Content, for  more details related ...

  6. Patient Portal

    e invitation code provided to you and click “Agree” to the release of inf ...

  7. Simulation Center

    TBHC has developed a multimillion dollar, state-of-the-art Simulation Facility where residents receive training on laparoscopy, intubation, central line placement, code simulations and obstetric deliveries.   ...

  8. Event

    Healthy Back 2 School Fair!

    e blood pressure and foot screenings • Health insurance information • Sch ...

  9. Article

    Saturday in the Park! Annual health fair in Fort Greene Park helps us keep Brooklyn healthy.

    r prostate cancer). Dental and foot screenings, HIV/AIDS education, infant CPR ...

  10. Article

    Saturday In The Park-- TBHC Health Fair Emphasizes Wellness and Prevention

    tal, glucose, blood pressure, cholesterol, postural, foot, PSA, and BMI ...

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