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  1. Medical Service

    Head & Neck Surgery

    The Brooklyn Hospital Center's Division of Head and Neck Surgery manages the diagnosis and surgical treatment of benign and malignant tumors of the head and neck. Staffed by a team of highly capable sur ...

  2. Medical Service

    Otolaryngology

    mon Conditions and Services Head and neck infections, cysts, lesions, masses all ... cer papillomas spasmodic dysphonia throat infections vocal fold nodules Head ...

  3. Medical Service

    Pediatric Surgery

    infections congenital anomalies and tumors of the head, neck, chest, abd ...

  4. Medical Service

    Plastic Surgery

    years of specialty training in head and neck surgery and facial pla ... of the head and neck provides the facial plastic surgeon with a strong foc ...

  5. Medical Service

    Allergy & Immunology

    rrhea, headache, runny nose itching of the nose, mouth, throat, skin, or any ...

  6. Medical Service

    Neurology

    disorders neck and back pain stroke headaches carpal tunnel syndrome ...

  7. Medical Service

    Nuclear Medicine

    imaging equipment including one single-head and three dual-head gamma cam ...

  8. Medical Service

    Pediatric Genetics

    lude: unexplained developmental/speech delays or mental retardation small head siz ...

  9. Physician

    Heather MacAdam

    Pediatric Emergency Medicine Physician The Brooklyn Hospital Center 121 DeKalb Avenue Brooklyn NY 11201 Specialty:  Pediatric Emergency Medicine Medical School:  University of Pennsylvania School of Medicine Internship:  Jackson Memorial Hospital Residenc ...

  10. Medical Service

    Speech & Hearing

    rehabilitation for head and neck cancer patients Voice disorders (vocal nod ...

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  1. Medical Service Parent

    Cancer Care

    cer, but being aware of your body and seeking medical care when you start to notice ...

  2. Heart Disease

    tent above is based on Adam Health Content, for  more details related to  ... .599.6200   HEALTH RESOURCES Wellness for Life Club   What is Your  BODY MASS IND ...

  3. Diabetes

    el.   The content above is based on Adam Health Content, for  more details related ... t is Your  BODY MASS INDEX >   Need Help Losing Weight?  Visit our Wei ...

  4. Article

    Cared For — Body and Mind

    When I woke up in the middle of the night with a very painful "charley horse" in my calf after a trip to Washington DC, I thought nothing of it. I just figured I had strained it from the active day, no big deal. But the pain lingered on, intensi ...

  5. Medical Service

    Dermatology

    n and body, offering skin care for the entire family. Not all skin conditions ... cer, ethnicity matters Malignant melanomas can appear anywhere on the body ...

  6. Medical Service

    Otolaryngology

    and sleep apnea foreign body removal tracheotomy thyroidectomy & par ... d and Neck Surgery foreign body removal infections, cysts, lesions and masses ...

  7. Docs

    Docs body content ...

  8. Medical Service

    Wound Care

    O” therapy is a medical treatment that enhances the body’s natural healing ...

  9. Physician

    Heather MacAdam

    Pediatric Emergency Medicine Physician The Brooklyn Hospital Center 121 DeKalb Avenue Brooklyn NY 11201 Specialty:  Pediatric Emergency Medicine Medical School:  University of Pennsylvania School of Medicine Internship:  Jackson Memorial Hospital Residenc ...

  10. Medical Service

    Palliative Care

    decisions Help improving your body’s tolerance for medications Coordination ...

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Depression

Definition

Depression may be described as feeling sad, blue, unhappy, miserable, or down in the dumps. Most of us feel this way at one time or another for short periods.

Clinical depression is a mood disorder in which feelings of sadness, loss, anger, or frustration interfere with everyday life for a longer period of time.

For more information on the symptoms and treatment of depression, see:

Alternative Names

Blues; Gloom; Sadness; Melancholy

Considerations

Symptoms of depression include:

Low self-esteem is common with depression. It is also common to have sudden bursts of anger and a lack of pleasure from activities that normally make you happy, including sex.

Depressed children may not have the same symptoms as depressed adults. Watch for changes in school work, sleep, and behavior. If you wonder whether your child might be depressed, it's worth talking to a health care provider.

The main types of depression include:

Other common forms of depression include:

Depression may also alternate with mania (known as manic depression or bipolar disorder).

Depression may be more common in women than men. This may be because women tend to seek help for it more. Depression is also more common during the teenage years.

Causes

Depression often runs in families. This may be due to your genes (inherited), behaviors you learn at home, or both. Even if your genes make you more likely to develop depression, a stressful or unhappy life event usually triggers the depression.

Many factors can cause depression, including:

Home Care

If you are depressed for 2 weeks or longer, contact your doctor or other health professional before your symptoms get worse.

No matter what type of depression you have and how severe it is, the following self-care steps can help:

If your depression occurs in the fall or winter months, try light therapy using a special lamp that is like sunlight.

If you have moderate to severe depression, the most effective treatment plan will likely involve a combination of talk therapy, lifestyle changes, and medication.

When to Contact a Medical Professional

Call 911, a suicide hotline, or go to a nearby emergency room if you have thoughts of harming yourself or others.

Call your doctor if:

What to Expect at Your Office Visit

Your health care provider will find out how severe your depression is (mild, moderate, or severe) and look for the cause by doing a:

If there is a risk of suicide, you may need to stay in the hospital for treatment.

You will talk with the health care provider about the issues and events that may be causing your depression. Your doctor will ask you about:

Treatment will depend on your symptoms. For mild depression, counseling and self-care may be enough. The most effective therapy for moderate or severe depression is a combination of antidepressant medication and talk therapy.

Your primary care doctor may refer you to a psychiatrist if your depression is moderate to severe, or if it does not improve with treatment.

For more treatment information, see: Major depression

Prevention

Healthy lifestyle habits can help prevent depression, and reduce the chances of it coming back. Talk therapy and antidepressant medication can also make you less likely to become depressed again.

Talk therapy may help you through times of grief, stress, or low mood. Family therapy may help teens who feel sad.

Keeping close contact with other people is important for preventing depression.

References

Fava M, Cassano P. Mood disorders: Major depressive disorder and dysthymic disorder. In: Stern TA, Rosenbaum JF, Fava M, Biederman J, Rauch SL, eds. Massachusetts General Hospital Comprehensive Clinical Psychiatry. 1st ed. Philadelphia, Pa: Mosby Elsevier; 2008:chap 29.

American Psychiatric Association. Practice guidelines for the treatment of patients with major depressive disorder. 2nd ed. September 2007.



Review Date: 3/25/2012
Reviewed By: Timothy Rogge, MD, Medical Director, Family Medical Psychiatry Center, Kirkland, WA. Also reviewed by David Zieve, MD, MHA, Medical Director, A.D.A.M. Health Solutions, Ebix, Inc.
The information provided herein should not be used during any medical emergency or for the diagnosis or treatment of any medical condition. A licensed medical professional should be consulted for diagnosis and treatment of any and all medical conditions. Links to other sites are provided for information only -- they do not constitute endorsements of those other sites. © 1997- A.D.A.M., Inc. Any duplication or distribution of the information contained herein is strictly prohibited.
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  1. Medical Service

    Orthopaedic Services

    of the foot, knee, shoulder, hip, hand or other joints. We also treat bone ... gery of the Foot, Ankle, Knee and Shoulder Cartilage and Tendon Repair Inpatient ... e Meniscus Tears Torn ACL and Other Ligament Tears Foot and Ankle Achilles ...

  2. Medical Service

    Podiatry

    The Surgical Division of Podiatry offers quality, compassionate health care and state-of-the-art therapies to treat a wide range of foot and ankle disorders. Conditions Treated ingrown toenails ankle sprains ...

  3. Medical Service

    Geriatrics

    entia, Depression, Memory Loss Urinary and Bowel Incontinence Foot Ulcers and Other Slow Healing ...

  4. Physician

    Heather MacAdam

    Pediatric Emergency Medicine Physician The Brooklyn Hospital Center 121 DeKalb Avenue Brooklyn NY 11201 Specialty:  Pediatric Emergency Medicine Medical School:  University of Pennsylvania School of Medicine Internship:  Jackson Memorial Hospital Residenc ...

  5. Heart Disease

    tent above is based on Adam Health Content, for  more details related to  ...

  6. Diabetes

    el.   The content above is based on Adam Health Content, for  more details related ...

  7. Article

    Saturday in the Park! Annual health fair in Fort Greene Park helps us keep Brooklyn healthy.

    r prostate cancer). Dental and foot screenings, HIV/AIDS education, infant CPR ...

  8. Article

    Saturday In The Park-- TBHC Health Fair Emphasizes Wellness and Prevention

    tal, glucose, blood pressure, cholesterol, postural, foot, PSA, and BMI ...

  9. Article

    Building a Better Health Care Delivery System for Brooklyn Communities

    work.  The report covers 15 zip codes, including Bedford Stuyvesant, Bushwick, Bro ...

  10. Article

    New Report on Health Needs, Gaps and Barriers to Care in North and Central Brooklyn Released in Conjunction with Proposed Redesign of Brooklyn’s Health Care System

    oklyn Perinatal Network.  The report covers 15 zip codes, including Bedford Stu ...

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