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  1. Medical Service

    Head & Neck Surgery

    The Brooklyn Hospital Center's Division of Head and Neck Surgery manages the diagnosis and surgical treatment of benign and malignant tumors of the head and neck. Staffed by a team of highly capable sur ...

  2. Medical Service

    Otolaryngology

    mon Conditions and Services Head and neck infections, cysts, lesions, masses all ... cer papillomas spasmodic dysphonia throat infections vocal fold nodules Head ...

  3. Medical Service

    Pediatric Surgery

    infections congenital anomalies and tumors of the head, neck, chest, abd ...

  4. Medical Service

    Plastic Surgery

    years of specialty training in head and neck surgery and facial pla ... of the head and neck provides the facial plastic surgeon with a strong foc ...

  5. Medical Service

    Allergy & Immunology

    rrhea, headache, runny nose itching of the nose, mouth, throat, skin, or any ...

  6. Medical Service

    Neurology

    disorders neck and back pain stroke headaches carpal tunnel syndrome ...

  7. Medical Service

    Nuclear Medicine

    imaging equipment including one single-head and three dual-head gamma cam ...

  8. Medical Service

    Pediatric Genetics

    lude: unexplained developmental/speech delays or mental retardation small head siz ...

  9. Physician

    Heather MacAdam

    Pediatric Emergency Medicine Physician The Brooklyn Hospital Center 121 DeKalb Avenue Brooklyn NY 11201 Specialty:  Pediatric Emergency Medicine Medical School:  University of Pennsylvania School of Medicine Internship:  Jackson Memorial Hospital Residenc ...

  10. Medical Service

    Speech & Hearing

    rehabilitation for head and neck cancer patients Voice disorders (vocal nod ...

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  1. Medical Service Parent

    Cancer Care

    cer, but being aware of your body and seeking medical care when you start to notice ...

  2. Heart Disease

    tent above is based on Adam Health Content, for  more details related to  ... .599.6200   HEALTH RESOURCES Wellness for Life Club   What is Your  BODY MASS IND ...

  3. Diabetes

    el.   The content above is based on Adam Health Content, for  more details related ... t is Your  BODY MASS INDEX >   Need Help Losing Weight?  Visit our Wei ...

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    Cared For — Body and Mind

    When I woke up in the middle of the night with a very painful "charley horse" in my calf after a trip to Washington DC, I thought nothing of it. I just figured I had strained it from the active day, no big deal. But the pain lingered on, intensi ...

  5. Medical Service

    Dermatology

    n and body, offering skin care for the entire family. Not all skin conditions ... cer, ethnicity matters Malignant melanomas can appear anywhere on the body ...

  6. Medical Service

    Otolaryngology

    and sleep apnea foreign body removal tracheotomy thyroidectomy & par ... d and Neck Surgery foreign body removal infections, cysts, lesions and masses ...

  7. Medical Service

    Wound Care

    O” therapy is a medical treatment that enhances the body’s natural healing ...

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  9. Medical Service

    Palliative Care

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Diabetes

Definition

Diabetes is usually a lifelong (chronic) disease in which there is a high level of sugar in the blood.

Causes

Insulin is a hormone produced by the pancreas to control blood sugar. Diabetes can be caused by too little insulin, resistance to insulin, or both.

To understand diabetes, it is important to first understand the normal process by which food is broken down and used by the body for energy. Several things happen when food is digested:

People with diabetes have high blood sugar because their body cannot move sugar into fat, liver, and muscle cells to be stored for energy. This is because either:

There are two major types of diabetes. The causes and risk factors are different for each type:

Gestational diabetes is high blood sugar that develops at any time during pregnancy in a woman who does not have diabetes.

Diabetes affects more than 20 million Americans. Over 40 million Americans have pre-diabetes (which often develops before type 2 diabetes). If your parent, brother or sister has diabetes, you may be more likely to develop diabetes.

Symptoms

High blood sugar level can cause several symptoms, including:

Because type 2 diabetes develops slowly, some people with high blood sugar have no symptoms.

Symptoms of type 1 diabetes develop over a short period. People may be very sick by the time they are diagnosed.

After many years, diabetes can lead to other serious problems. These problems are known as diabetes complications and include:

Exams and Tests

A urine analysis may show high blood sugar. But a urine test alone does not diagnose diabetes.

Your health care provider may suspect that you have diabetes if your blood sugar level is higher than 200 mg/dL. To confirm the diagnosis, one or more of the following tests must be done.

Blood tests:

Screening for type 2 diabetes in people who have no symptoms is recommended for:

Treatment

With type 2 diabetes, the disease may be reversed with lifestyle changes, especially losing weight through exercising and eating healthier foods.  Also, some cases of type 2 diabetes can be improved with weight-loss surgery.

There is no cure for type 1 diabetes.

Treating both type 1 diabetes and type 2 diabetes involves medicines, diet, and exercise to control blood sugar level.

Getting better control over your blood sugar, cholesterol, and blood pressure levels helps reduce the risk of kidney disease, eye disease, nervous system disease, heart attack, and stroke.

To prevent diabetes complications, visit your health care provider at least two to four times a year. Talk about any problems you are having. Follow your health care provider's instructions on managing your diabetes.

Support Groups

American Diabetes Association | www.diabetes.org

Prevention

Keeping an ideal body weight and an active lifestyle may prevent type 2 diabetes.

Type 1 diabetes cannot be prevented.

References

Alemzadeh R, Ali O. Diabetes mellitus. In: Kliegman RM, ed. Kliegman: Nelson Textbook of Pediatrics. 19th ed. Philadelphia, Pa.: Elsevier Saunders; 2011:chap 583.

Amorosa LF, Lee EJ, Swee DE. Diabetes mellitus. In: Rakel RE, Rakel DP, eds. Textbook of Family Medicine. 8th ed. Philadelphia, Pa.: Elsevier Saunders; 2011:chap 34.

American Diabetes Association. Standards of medical care in diabetes -- 2013. Diabetes Care. 2013; Jan;33 Suppl 1:S11-S61.

Eisenbarth GS, Polonsky KS, Buse JB. Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus. In: Kronenberg HM, Melmed S, Polonsky KS, Larsen PR. Kronenberg: Williams Textbook of Endocrinology. 11th ed. Philadelphia, Pa: Saunders Elsevier; 2008:chap 31.



Review Date: 6/27/2012
Reviewed By: Shehzad Topiwala, MD, Chief Consultant Endocrinologist, Premier Medical Associates, The Villages, FL. Review provided by VeriMed Healthcare Network. Also reviewed by David Zieve, MD, MHA, Medical Director, A.D.A.M. Health Solutions, Ebix, Inc.
The information provided herein should not be used during any medical emergency or for the diagnosis or treatment of any medical condition. A licensed medical professional should be consulted for diagnosis and treatment of any and all medical conditions. Links to other sites are provided for information only -- they do not constitute endorsements of those other sites. © 1997- A.D.A.M., Inc. Any duplication or distribution of the information contained herein is strictly prohibited.
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  1. Medical Service

    Orthopaedic Services

    of the foot, knee, shoulder, hip, hand or other joints. We also treat bone ... gery of the Foot, Ankle, Knee and Shoulder Cartilage and Tendon Repair Inpatient ... e Meniscus Tears Torn ACL and Other Ligament Tears Foot and Ankle Achilles ...

  2. Medical Service

    Podiatry

    The Surgical Division of Podiatry offers quality, compassionate health care and state-of-the-art therapies to treat a wide range of foot and ankle disorders. Conditions Treated ingrown toenails ankle sprains ...

  3. Medical Service

    Geriatrics

    entia, Depression, Memory Loss Urinary and Bowel Incontinence Foot Ulcers and Other Slow Healing ...

  4. Physician

    Heather MacAdam

    Pediatric Emergency Medicine Physician The Brooklyn Hospital Center 121 DeKalb Avenue Brooklyn NY 11201 Specialty:  Pediatric Emergency Medicine Medical School:  University of Pennsylvania School of Medicine Internship:  Jackson Memorial Hospital Residenc ...

  5. Heart Disease

    tent above is based on Adam Health Content, for  more details related to  ...

  6. Diabetes

    el.   The content above is based on Adam Health Content, for  more details related ...

  7. Article

    Saturday in the Park! Annual health fair in Fort Greene Park helps us keep Brooklyn healthy.

    r prostate cancer). Dental and foot screenings, HIV/AIDS education, infant CPR ...

  8. Article

    Saturday In The Park-- TBHC Health Fair Emphasizes Wellness and Prevention

    tal, glucose, blood pressure, cholesterol, postural, foot, PSA, and BMI ...

  9. Article

    Building a Better Health Care Delivery System for Brooklyn Communities

    work.  The report covers 15 zip codes, including Bedford Stuyvesant, Bushwick, Bro ...

  10. Article

    New Report on Health Needs, Gaps and Barriers to Care in North and Central Brooklyn Released in Conjunction with Proposed Redesign of Brooklyn’s Health Care System

    oklyn Perinatal Network.  The report covers 15 zip codes, including Bedford Stu ...

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