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Vaccines (immunizations) - overview

Definition

Vaccines are used to improve your immune system and prevent serious, life-threatening diseases.

Alternative Names

Vaccinations

Information

HOW VACCINES WORK

Vaccines "teach" your body how to defend itself when germs, such as viruses or bacteria, invade it:

Four types of vaccines are currently available:

WHY WE NEED VACCINES

For a few weeks after they are born, babies have some protection from germs that cause diseases. This protection is passed from their mother through the placenta before birth. After a short period, this natural protection goes away.

Vaccines help protect against many diseases that used to be much more common. Examples include tetanus, diphtheria, mumps, measles, pertussis (whooping cough), meningitis, and polio. Many of these infections can cause serious or life-threatening illnesses and may lead to lifelong disabilities. Because of vaccines, many of these illnesses are now rare.

SAFETY OF VACCINES

Some people worry that vaccines are not safe and may be harmful, especially for children. They may ask their health care provider to wait or even choose not to have the vaccine. But the benefits of vaccines far outweigh their risks.

Scientific studies have shown that vaccines and their components, such as the preservative thimerosal, do not cause autism or ADHD. Based on these studies, the American Academy of Pediatrics, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, as well as the Institute of Medicine conclude that the benefits of vaccines outweigh their risks.

Other information about risks:

VACCINE SCHEDULE

The recommended vaccination (immunization) schedule is updated every 12 months by the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Talk to your health care provider about specific immunizations for you or your child. Current recommendations are available at the CDC website: http://www.cdc.gov/vaccines/schedules.

TRAVELERS

The CDC website (http://www.cdc.gov/travel/page/vaccinations.htm) has detailed information on immunizations and other precautions for travelers to other countries. Many immunizations should be received at least one month before travel.

Bring your immunization records with you when you travel internationally. Some countries require this documentation.

COMMON IMMUNIZATIONS

References

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP) Recommended Immunization Schedules for Persons Aged 0 Through 18 Years and Adults Aged 19 Years and Older - United States, 2013. MMWR. 2013;62(Suppl1):1-19.

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Vaccine safety and adverse events. Available at http://www.cdc.gov/vaccines/vac-gen/safety/default.htm. Accessed April 19, 2013.

DeStefano F, Price CS, Weintraub ES. Increasing exposure to antibody-stimulating proteins and polysaccharides in vaccines is not associated with risk of autism. J Pediatr. 2013; DOI10.1016/j.peds.2013.02.001.

Institute of Medicine. Immunization Safety Review Committee. Immunization Safety Review: Vaccines and Autism. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press; 2004.

Orenstein WA, Atkinson WL. Immunization. In: Goldman L, Schafer AI, eds. Goldman's Cecil Medicine. 24th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2011:chap 17.



Review Date: 2/21/2013
Reviewed By: Neil K. Kaneshiro, MD, MHA, Clinical Assistant Professor of Pediatrics, University of Washington School of Medicine, Seattle, WA. Also reviewed by A.D.A.M. Health Solutions, Ebix, Inc., Editorial Team: David Zieve, MD, MHA, Bethanne Black, Stephanie Slon, and Nissi Wang.
The information provided herein should not be used during any medical emergency or for the diagnosis or treatment of any medical condition. A licensed medical professional should be consulted for diagnosis and treatment of any and all medical conditions. Links to other sites are provided for information only -- they do not constitute endorsements of those other sites. © 1997- A.D.A.M., Inc. Any duplication or distribution of the information contained herein is strictly prohibited.
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