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Osteoporosis

Highlights

Osteoporosis Risk Factors

Screening for Osteoporosis

New Calcium and Vitamin D Supplement Recommendations

Healthy postmenopausal women with good diets do not need to take calcium and vitamin D supplements, according to a 2013 recommendation from the U.S. Preventive Services Task Force (USPSTF). According to the USPSTF, daily low-dose amounts of vitamin D and calcium supplements do not prevent fractures and can increase the risk of kidney stones. Talk with your doctor about whether or not you need these supplements. Additional research is needed to evaluate possible benefits of higher doses of  vitamin D.

Medications

Drug Approval

Selective estrogen-receptor modulators (SERMs) are another type of drug used to treat osteoporosis. Raloxifene (Evista) has been the only SERM approved for osteoporosis treatment and prevention. In 2013, the FDA approved Duavee, a drug that combines the SERM bazedoxifene with the conjugated estrogens used in hormone replacement therapy for menopause. The drug is approved mainly to treat menopausal symptoms such as hot flashes, but may also be used to prevent osteoporosis. However, the FDA recommends that other, non-estrogen drugs should be tried first. 

Drug Warning

In 2013, an FDA advisory committee recommended against the use of calcitonin salmon for the treatment of osteoporosis because of concerns the drug may increase the risks for cancer. Calcitonin salmon products are available as a nasal spray (Miacalcin, Fortical, generic) and injectable (Miacalcin, generic). The FDA is expected to make a final decision in the coming year.

Introduction

Osteoporosis is a progressive skeletal disease in which bones become thin, weak, brittle, and prone to fracture. Osteoporosis literally means “porous bones.” Thinning bones are caused by loss of bone density. Calcium and other minerals contribute to the bone mineral density that helps strengthen and protect bones.

Skeleton
The skeleton consists of groups of bones which protect and move the body.

Bones are made of living tissue that is constantly being broken down (resorbed) and formed again. The balance of bone build-up (formation) and break down (resorption) is controlled by a complex mix of hormones and chemical factors. If bone resorption occurs at a greater rate than bone formation, your bones lose density and you are at increased risk for osteoporosis.

Until a healthy adult is around age 40, the process of formation and resorption is a nearly perfectly coupled system, with one phase balancing the other. As a person ages, or in the presence of certain conditions, this system breaks down and the two processes become out of sync. Eventually, the breakdown of bone eventually overtakes the build-up.

In women, estrogen loss after menopause is particularly associated with rapid resorption and loss of bone density. Postmenopausal women are therefore at highest risk for osteoporosis and subsequent fractures.

Primary osteoporosis is the most common type of osteoporosis. It is usually age-related and associated with the postmenopausal decline in estrogen levels, or related to calcium and vitamin D insufficiency.

Secondary osteoporosis is osteoporosis caused by other conditions, such as hormonal imbalances, diseases, or medications.


   Click the icon to see an image of osteoporosis.    

Causes

Women and Estrogen. A woman experiences a rapid decline in bone density after menopause, when her ovaries stop producing estrogen. Estrogen comes in several forms:

The ovaries produce most of the estrogen in the body, but estrogen can also be formed in other tissues, such as the adrenal glands, body fat, skin, and muscle. After menopause, some amounts of estrogen continue to be manufactured in the adrenals and in peripheral body fat. Even though the adrenals and ovaries stop producing estrogens directly, they continue to be a source of the male hormone testosterone, which converts into estradiol.

Estrogen may have an impact on bone density in various ways, including slowing bone breakdown (resorption).

Men and Androgens and Estrogen. In men, the most important androgen (male hormone) is testosterone, which is produced in the testes. Other androgens are produced in the adrenal glands. Androgens are converted to estrogen in various parts of a man’s body, including bone.


 Click the icon to see an image of the adrenal glands. 

Studies suggest that falling levels of testosterone and estrogen can contribute to bone loss in elderly men. Both hormones are important for bone strength in men.

Low levels of vitamin D and high levels of parathyroid hormone (PTH) are associated with bone density loss in women after menopause:

 

   Click the icon to see an image of the benefits of vitamin D.  

   Click the icon to see an image of the sources of vitamin D. 

   Click the icon to see an image of the parathyroid glands. 

Secondary osteoporosis results from medications or other medical conditions.

Medications. Medications that can cause osteoporosis include:

Medical Conditions. Osteoporosis can be secondary to other medical conditions, including alcoholism, diabetes, thyroid imbalances, chronic liver or kidney disease, Crohn's disease, celiac disease, scurvy, rheumatoid arthritis, leukemia, cirrhosis, gastrointestinal diseases, vitamin D deficiency, lymphoma, hyperparathyroidism, anorexia nervosa, premature menopause, and rare genetic disorders such as Marfan and Ehlers-Danlos syndromes.

Risk Factors

The main risk factors for osteoporosis are:

Seventy percent of people with osteoporosis are women. Men start with higher bone density and lose calcium at a slower rate than women, which is why their risk is lower. Nevertheless, older men are also at risk for osteoporosis.

As people age, their risks for osteoporosis increase. Aging causes bones to thin and weaken. Osteoporosis is most common among postmenopausal women, and screening for low bone density is recommended for all women over the age of 65.

Although adults from all ethnic groups are susceptible to developing osteoporosis, Caucasian and Asian women and men face a comparatively greater risk.

Osteoporosis is more common in people who have a small, thin body frame and bone structure. Low body weight (less than 127 pounds or a BMI less than 21) is a risk factor for osteoporosis.

People whose parents had a fracture due to osteoporosis are themselves at increased risk for osteoporosis.

Women. Estrogen deficiency is a primary risk factor for osteoporosis in women. Estrogen deficiency is associated with:

Men. Low levels of testosterone increase osteoporosis risk. Certain types of medical conditions (hypogonadism) and treatments (prostate cancer androgen deprivation) can cause testosterone deficiency.

Dietary Factors. Diet plays an important role in both preventing and speeding up bone loss in men and women. Calcium and vitamin D deficiencies are risk factors for osteoporosis. Other dietary factors may also be harmful or protective for certain people.

Calcium benefit
The body requires adequate vitamin D in order to absorb calcium. In the United States, many food sources of calcium such as milk are fortified with vitamin D.  

   Click the icon to see an image of the sources of calcium. 

Exercise. Lack of weight-bearing exercise and a sedentary lifestyle increases the risk for osteoporosis. Conversely, in competitive female athletes, excessive exercise may reduce estrogen levels, causing bone loss. (The eating disorder anorexia nervosa can have a similar effect.) People who are chairbound or bedbound due to medical infirmities and who do not bear weight on the bones are at risk for osteoporosis.

 

 Click the icon to see an image of the sources of vitamin D. 

Smoking. Smoking can affect calcium absorption and estrogen levels.

Alcohol. Excessive consumption of alcoholic beverages can increase the risk for bone loss.

Lack of Sunlight. Vitamin D is made in the skin using energy from the ultraviolet rays in sunlight. Vitamin D is necessary for the absorption of calcium in the stomach and gastrointestinal tract and is the essential companion to calcium in maintaining strong bones.

The maximum density that bones achieve during the growing years is a major factor in whether a person goes on to develop osteoporosis. People, usually women, who never develop adequate peak bone mass in early life are at high risk for osteoporosis later on. Children at risk for low peak bone mass include those who are:

Exercise and good nutrition during the first three decades of life (when peak bone mass is reached) are excellent safeguards against osteoporosis (and other health problems).

Complications

Low bone density increases the risk for fracture. Bone fractures are the most serious complication of osteoporosis. Spinal vertebral fractures are the most common type of osteoporosis-related fracture, followed by hip fractures, wrist fractures, and other types of broken bones. About 80% of these fractures occur after relatively minor falls or accidents. In addition to causing disability, hip fractures can increase the risk of early death. Complications of hip fractures include hospital-acquired infections and blood clots in the lungs.

Osteoporosis

 Click the icon to see an animation about osteoporosis. 

   Click the icon to see an image of a compression fracture. 

   Click the icon to see an image of a hip fracture. 

Symptoms

Osteoporosis is usually quite advanced before symptoms appear. Unfortunately, a fracture of the wrist or hip is often the first sign of osteoporosis. These fractures can occur even after relatively minor trauma, such as bending over, lifting, jumping, or falling from a standing position.

Compression fractures can occur in the vertebrae of the spine as a result of weakened bone. Early spinal compression fractures may go undetected for a long time, but after a large percentage of calcium has been lost, the vertebrae in the spine start to collapse, gradually causing a stooped posture called kyphosis, or a "dowager’s hump." Although this is usually painless, patients may lose as much as 6 inches in height.

 

 Click the icon to see an image of osteoporosis. 

Diagnosis

Because osteoporosis can occur with few symptoms, testing is important. Bone density testing is recommended for:

In addition to age, the main risk factors for osteoporosis are:

Other risk factors that may indicate a need for bone mineral density testing include:

Central DXA. Bone densitometry is a test for measuring bone density. The standard technique for determining bone density is called dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA). DXA is simple and painless and takes 2 - 4 minutes. The machine measures bone density by detecting the extent to which bones absorb photons that are generated by very low-level x-rays. (Photons are atomic particles with no charge.) Measurements of bone mineral density are generally given as the average concentrations of calcium in areas that are scanned.

Bone density scan

Central DXA measures the bone mineral density at the hip, upper thigh bone (femoral neck), and spine.

 

 Click the icon to see an image of a hip fracture.

Other Tests. Other tests may be used, but they are not usually as accurate as DXA. They include ultrasound techniques, DXA of the wrist, heels, fingers, or leg (peripheral DXA) and quantitative computed tomography (QCT) scan.

Screening tests using these technologies are sometimes given at health fairs or other non-medical settings. These screening tests typically measure peripheral bone density in the heels, fingers, or leg bones. The results of these tests may vary from DXA measurements of spine and hip. While these peripheral tests may help indicate who requires further BMD testing, a central DXA test is required to diagnose osteoporosis and to monitor treatment response.

Osteoporosis is diagnosed when bone density has decreased to the point where fractures can result from mild stress, the so-called fracture threshold. This is determined by measuring bone density and comparing the results with the norm, which is defined as the average bone mineral density in the hipbones of a healthy 30-year-old adult.

The doctor then uses this comparison to determine the standard deviation (SD) from this norm. Standard deviation results are given as Z and T scores:

Results of T-scores indicate:

The lower the T-score, the lower the bone density, and the greater the risk for fracture. In general, doctors recommend beginning medication when T-scores are -2.5 or below. Patients who have other risk factors may need to begin medication when they have osteopenia (scores between -1 and -2.5). Osteopenia refers to bone mineral density that is lower than normal, but not low enough to be classified as osteoporosis. Osteopenia is considered a precursor to osteoporosis.

Doctors don’t yet know the best testing schedule for women whose first test does not reveal osteoporosis. Current practice recommends that older patients have a bone mineral density test every 2 years. However, some recent research suggests that low-risk women who have normal test results may be able to wait for up to 15 years to be rescreened. (Women at higher risk would need to have another test at much shorter intervals.) Discuss with your doctor how often you should be tested based on your individual risk factors. .

In certain cases, your doctor may recommend that you have a blood test to measure your vitamin D levels. A standard test measures 25-hydroxyvitamin D, also called 25(OH)D. Depending on the results, your doctor may recommend you take vitamin D supplements.

Lifestyle Changes

Healthy lifestyle habits, including adequate intake of calcium and vitamin D, are important for preventing osteoporosis and supporting medical treatment.

A combination of calcium and vitamin D may reduce the risk of osteoporosis. (For strong bones, people need enough of both calcium and vitamin D.) The best sources are from calcium-rich and vitamin D-fortified foods.

The National Osteoporosis Foundation (NOF) recommends:

Dietary Sources. Good dietary sources of calcium include:

Certain types of foods can interfere with calcium absorption. These include foods high in oxalate (such as spinach and beet greens) or phytate (peas, pinto beans, navy beans, wheat bran). Diets high in animal protein, sodium, or caffeine may also interfere with calcium absorption.

Dietary sources of vitamin D include:

However, many Americans do not get enough vitamin D solely from diet or exposure to sunlight.

Supplements. Doctors are currently reconsidering the use of calcium and vitamin D supplements based on studies suggesting that supplements do not make much difference for bone mineral density protection. The U.S. Preventive Services Task Force (USPSTF) advises that healthy postmenopausal women don’t need to take these supplements.

According to the USPSTF, taking daily low-dose amounts of vitamin D supplements (less than 400 IU), with or without calcium supplements (less than 1,000 mg), does not prevent fractures. For higher doses, the USPSTF says there is not enough evidence to make a recommendation. In addition to possible lack of benefit, these supplements are associated (even at lower doses) with certain risks, like kidney stones.

Vitamin D and calcium supplements may be appropriate for certain people including those who do not get enough vitamin D through sunlight exposure and those who do not consume enough calcium in their diet. They are also helpful for people who have been diagnosed with osteoporosis.

Calcium and vitamin D supplements can be taken as separate supplements or as a combination supplement. If separate preparations are used, they do not need to be taken at the same time.

Given the controversies over the benefits and safety of these supplements, be sure to discuss with your doctor whether supplements are a good choice for you. As an alternative to supplements, many doctors recommend making dietary changes to increase calcium and vitamin D intake, and getting 15 minutes a day of sun exposure.

Exercise is very important for slowing the progression of osteoporosis. Although mild exercise does not protect bones, moderate exercise (more than 3 days a week for more than a total of 90 minutes a week) reduces the risk for osteoporosis and fracture in both older men and women. Exercise should be regular and life-long. Before beginning any strenuous exercise program, talk to your doctor.

Specific exercises may be better than others:

Bone-building exercise
Exercise plays an important role in preserving bone density in the aging person. Studies show that exercises requiring muscles to pull on bones cause the bones to retain and possibly gain calcium and strength.  

 Click the icon to see an image of osteoporosis.    

Other lifestyle changes that can help prevent osteoporosis include:

An important component in reducing the risk for fractures is preventing falls. Risk factors for falling include:

Recommendations for preventing falls or fractures from falls include:

Medications

Two types of drugs are used to prevent and treat osteoporosis:

Both types of drugs are effective in preventing bone loss and fractures, although they may cause different types of side effects. The United States Preventive Services Task Force (USPSTF) recommends that these drugs should be prescribed only to patients who have been diagnosed with osteoporosis.

Bisphosphonates are the primary drugs for preventing and treating osteoporosis. They can help reduce the risk of both spinal and hip fractures, including among patients with prior bone breaks.

Studies indicate that these drugs are effective and safe for up to 5 years. Eventually, however, bone loss continues with bisphosphonates. This may be due to the fact that bone breakdown is one of two phases in a continuous process of rebuilding bone. Over time, blocking resorption interrupts this process and impairs the second half of the process -- bone formation.

Candidates. Clinical guidelines recommend that the following people should take or consider taking bisphosphonates:

Brands. Bisphosphonates for osteoporosis prevention and treatment are available in different forms:

Side Effects. The most distressing side effects of bisphosphonates are gastrointestinal problems, particularly stomach cramps and heartburn. These symptoms are very common and occur in nearly half of all patients. Other side effects may include irritation of the esophagus (the tube that connects the mouth to the stomach) and ulcers in the esophagus or stomach. Some patients may have muscle and joint pain. To avoid stomach problems, doctors recommend:

Other Concerns. The FDA is currently reviewing whether long-term (more than 3 - 5 years) use of bisphosphonate drugs provides any benefits for fracture prevention. Possible concerns for long-term use of bisphosphonates are increased risks for thigh bone (femoral fractures), esophageal cancer, and osteonecrosis (bone death) of the jaw. The FDA recommends that doctors periodically reevaluate patients who have been on bisphosphonates for more than 5 years. Patients should inform their doctors if they experience any new thigh or groin pain, swallowing difficulties, or jaw or gum discomfort. Do not stop taking your medication unless your doctor tells you to do so.

For the injectable drug zoledronic acid (Reclast), kidney failure is a rare but serious side effect. Zoledronic acid should not be used by patients with risk factors for kidney failure.

Denosumab (Prolia) is a newer drug approved for treatment of osteoporosis in postmenopausal women who are at high risk for fracture. Denosumab is the first “biological therapy” drug approved for osteoporosis. It is considered an antiresorptive drug, but it works in a different way than bisphosphonates. It is a monoclonal antibody that works by targeting RANKL, a chemical factor involved with bone resorption.

Denosumab slows down the bone-breakdown process. However, because it also slows down the bone build-up and remodeling process, it is unclear what its long-term effects may be. Possible concerns are that denosumab may slow the healing time for broken bones or cause unusual fractures. For now, denosumab is recommended for women who cannot tolerate or who have not been helped by other osteoporosis treatments.

Denosumab is given as an injection in a doctor’s office twice a year (once every 6 months). Common side effects include back pain, pain in the arms and legs, high cholesterol levels, muscle pain, and bladder infection. Denosumab can lower calcium levels and should not be taken by women who have low blood calcium levels (hypocalcemia) until this condition is corrected.

Because denosumab is a biologic drug, it can affect or weaken the immune system and may increase the risk for serious infections. Other potential adverse effects include inflammation of the skin (dermatitis, rash, eczema) and inflammation of the inner lining of the heart (endocarditis). Denosumab may increase the risk of jaw bone problems such as osteonecrosis.

Selective estrogen-receptor modulators (SERMs) are a class of drugs that are similar, but not identical, to estrogen. They can provide the bone benefits of estrogen without increasing the risks for estrogen-related breast and uterine cancers.

Raloxifene (Evista). Raloxifene (Evista) is the only SERM approved for both treatment and prevention of osteoporosis in postmenopausal women. Raloxifene is recommended for postmenopausal women with low bone mass or younger postmenopausal women with osteoporosis. It may help prevent bone loss and reduce the risk of vertebral (spine) fractures. It is less clear how effective it is for preventing other types of fractures. Raloxifene is taken as a pill once a day. Common mild side effects include hot flashes, joint pain, and swelling of legs, feet, and ankles.

Bazedoxifene and Conjugated Estrogens (Duavee). In 2013, the FDA approved Duavee, a drug that combines the SERM bazedoxifene with the conjugated estrogens used in hormone replacement therapy for menopause. The medication is approved both to treat moderate-to-severe menopausal symptoms such as hot flashes, and to prevent post-menopausal osteoporosis. When Duavee is used solely for the prevention of osteoporosis, the FDA recommends that it should be reserved for high-risk women, and that other, non-estrogen drugs should be tried first. Common side effects include muscle spasms, nausea, diarrhea, and upset stomach.

Thrombus
A thrombus is a blood clot that forms in a vessel and remains there. An embolism is a clot that travels from the site where it formed to another location in the body. Thrombi or emboli can lodge in a blood vessel and block the flow of blood in that location, depriving tissues of normal blood flow and oxygen. This can result in damage, destruction (infarction), or even death of the tissues (necrosis) in that area.

Serious Side Effects. All SERMs increase the risk for blood clots in the veins. Because of this side effect, these drugs also increase the risk for stroke (but not other types of cardiovascular disease). These side effects, though rare, are very serious. Women should not take a SERM drug if they have a history of blood clots, or if they have certain risk factors for stroke and heart disease.

Teriparatide (Forteo), an injectable drug made from selected amino acids found in parathyroid hormone, may help reduce the risks for spinal and non-spinal fractures. Although high persistent levels of parathyroid hormone (PTH) can cause osteoporosis, daily injections of low doses of this hormone actually stimulate bone production and increase bone mineral density. Teriparatide is usually recommended for patients with osteoporosis who are at high risk of fracture.

Side effects of PTH are generally mild and include nausea, dizziness, and leg cramps. No significant complications have been reported to date.

Early animal studies reported bone tumors in mice that were given parathyroid long-term. Such effects have not been observed in humans to date. However, people with Paget disease, (a disorder in which bone thickens but also weakens), should not take parathyroid hormone, because they are at higher than normal risk for bone tumors.

Produced by the thyroid gland, natural calcitonin regulates calcium levels by inhibiting the osteoclastic activity, the breakdown of bone. The drug version, calcitonin salmon, is derived from salmon and is available as a nasal spray (Miacalcin, Fortical, generic) and an injected form (Miacalcin, generic). Calcitonin is used to treat, not prevent, osteoporosis.  In 2013, an FDA advisory committee recommended against the use of calcitonin products for osteoporosis due to concerns that the drug may increase the risk for cancer. According to the advisors, the risks for cancer outweigh any possible benefits. The FDA is currently considering the committee’s recommendations and will make a final decision by 2014.

Side Effects. Side effects include headache, dizziness, anorexia, diarrhea, skin rashes, and edema (swelling). The most common adverse effect experienced with the injection is nausea, with or without vomiting. The nasal spray may cause nosebleeds, sinusitis, and inflammation of the membranes in the nose. Many people who take calcitonin develop resistance or allergic reactions after long-term use. As noted above, cancer risks are a concern.

Hormone replacement therapy (HRT) was formerly used to prevent osteoporosis, but is rarely used for this purpose today. Studies show that estrogen increases the risk for breast cancer, blood clots, strokes, and heart attacks. For this reason, women need to balance the benefits that HRT has on bone-loss protection, with the risks it carries for other serious health conditions. HRT is now mainly used for short-term treatment of symptoms of menopause. The United States Preventive Services Task Force (USPSTF) recommends against the use of HRT for prevention of osteoporosis or other chronic health conditions. 

Resources

References

Berry SD, Samelson EJ, Pencina MJ, McLean RR, Cupples LA, Broe KE, et al. Repeat bone mineral density screening and prediction of hip and major osteoporotic fracture. JAMA. 2013 Sep 25;310(12):1256-62.

Black DM, Kelly MP, Genant HK, Palermo L, Eastell R, Bucci-Rechtweg C, et al. Bisphosphonates and fractures of the subtrochanteric or diaphyseal femur. N Engl J Med. 2010 May 13;362(19):1761-71. Epub 2010 Mar 24.

Bolland MJ, Grey A, Avenell A, Gamble GD, Reid IR. Calcium supplements with or without vitamin D and risk of cardiovascular events: reanalysis of the Women's Health Initiative limited access dataset and meta-analysis. BMJ. 2011 Apr 19;342:d2040.

Chung M, Lee J, Terasawa T, Lau J, Trikalinos TA. Vitamin D with or without calcium supplementation for prevention of cancer and fractures: an updated meta-analysis for the U.S. Preventive Services Task Force. Ann Intern Med. 2011 Dec 20;155(12):827-38.

Committee on Practice Bulletins-Gynecology, The American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists. ACOG Practice Bulletin N. 129. Osteoporosis. Obstet Gynecol. 2012 Sep;120(3):718-34.

Cummings SR, San Martin J, McClung MR, Siris ES, Eastell R, Reid IR, et al. Denosumab for prevention of fractures in postmenopausal women with osteoporosis. N Engl J Med. 2009 Aug 20;361(8):756-65. Epub 2009 Aug 11.

Gourlay ML, Fine JP, Preisser JS, May RC, Li C, Lui LY, et al. Bone-density testing interval and transition to osteoporosis in older women. N Engl J Med. 2012 Jan 19;366(3):225-33.

Holick MF, Binkley NC, Bischoff-Ferrari HA, Gordon CM, Hanley DA, Heaney RP, et al. Evaluation, treatment, and prevention of vitamin D deficiency: an Endocrine Society clinical practice guideline. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2011 Jul;96(7):1911-30. Epub 2011 Jun 6.

Institute of Medicine. Dietary Reference Intakes for Calcium and Vitamin D. National Academies Press (US); 2011.

Kennel KA, Drake MT. Adverse effects of bisphosphonates: implications for osteoporosis management. Mayo Clin Proc. 2009 Jul;84(7):632-7.

Khosla S. Increasing options for the treatment of osteoporosis. N Engl J Med. 2009 Aug 20;361(8):818-20. Epub 2009 Aug 11.

Lewiecki EM. In the clinic. Osteoporosis. Ann Intern Med. 2011 Jul 5;155(1):ITC1-1-15.

Li K, Kaaks R, Linseisen J, Rohrmann S. Associations of dietary calcium intake and calcium supplementation with myocardial infarction and stroke risk and overall cardiovascular mortality in the Heidelberg cohort of the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition study (EPIC-Heidelberg). Heart. 2012 Jun;98(12):920-5.

Lim LS, Hoeksema LJ, Sherin K; ACPM Prevention Practice Committee. Screening for osteoporosis in the adult U.S. population: ACPM position statement on preventive practice. Am J Prev Med. 2009 Apr;36(4):366-75.

Moyer VA; U.S. Preventive Services Task Force. Menopausal hormone therapy for the primary prevention of chronic conditions: U.S. Preventive Services Task Force recommendation statement. Ann Intern Med. 2013 Jan 1;158(1):47-54.

Moyer VA; U.S. Preventive Services Task Force. Vitamin D and calcium supplementation to prevent fractures in adults: U.S. Preventive Services Task Force recommendation statement. Ann Intern Med. 2013 May 7;158(9):691-6.

National Osteoporosis Foundation. Clinician's Guide to Prevention and Treatment of Osteoporosis. Washington, DC: National Osteoporosis Foundation; 2010.

North American Menopause Society. Management of osteoporosis in postmenopausal women: 2010 position statement of The North American Menopause Society. Menopause. 2010 Jan-Feb;17(1):25-54; quiz 55-6.

Park-Wyllie LY, Mamdani MM, Juurlink DN, Hawker GA, Gunraj N, Austin PC, et al. Bisphosphonate use and the risk of subtrochanteric or femoral shaft fractures in older women. JAMA. 2011 Feb 23;305(8):783-9.

Qaseem A, Snow V, Shekelle P, Hopkins R Jr., Forciea MA and Owens DK. Pharmacologic treatment of low bone density or osteoporosis to prevent fractures: a clinical practice guideline from the American College of Physicians. Ann Intern Med. 2008;149(6): 404-15.

Reid IR, Bolland MJ, Grey A. Effects of vitamin D supplements on bone mineral density: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Lancet. 2013 Oct 10. pii: S0140-6736(13)61647-5 [Epub ahead of print]

Silverman SL, Landesberg R. Osteonecrosis of the jaw and the role of bisphosphonates: a critical review. Am J Med. 2009 Feb;122(2 Suppl):S33-45.

U.S. Preventive Services Task Force. Screening for osteoporosis: U.S. preventive services task force recommendation statement. Ann Intern Med. 2011 Mar 1;154(5):356-64. Epub 2011 Jan 17.

Watts NB, Diab DL. Long-term use of bisphosphonates in osteoporosis. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2010 Apr;95(4):1555-65. Epub 2010 Feb 19.

Watts NB, Adler RA, Bilezikian JP, Drake MT, Eastell R, Orwoll ES, et al. Osteoporosis in men: an Endocrine Society clinical practice guideline. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2012 Jun;97(6):1802-22.

Whitaker M, Guo J, Kehoe T, Benson G. Bisphosphonates for osteoporosis--where do we go from here? N Engl J Med. 2012 May 31;366(22):2048-51. Epub 2012 May 9.



Review Date: 12/16/2013
Reviewed By: Harvey Simon, MD, Editor-in-Chief, Associate Professor of Medicine, Harvard Medical School; Physician, Massachusetts General Hospital. Also reviewed by David Zieve, MD, MHA, Medical Director, A.D.A.M. Health Solutions, Ebix, Inc.
The information provided herein should not be used during any medical emergency or for the diagnosis or treatment of any medical condition. A licensed medical professional should be consulted for diagnosis and treatment of any and all medical conditions. Links to other sites are provided for information only -- they do not constitute endorsements of those other sites. © 1997- A.D.A.M., Inc. Any duplication or distribution of the information contained herein is strictly prohibited.
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  1. Medical Service

    Orthopaedic Services

    of the foot, knee, shoulder, hip, hand or other joints. We also treat bone ... gery of the Foot, Ankle, Knee and Shoulder Cartilage and Tendon Repair Inpatient ... e Meniscus Tears Torn ACL and Other Ligament Tears Foot and Ankle Achilles ...

  2. Medical Service

    Podiatry

    The Surgical Division of Podiatry offers quality, compassionate health care and state-of-the-art therapies to treat a wide range of foot and ankle disorders. Conditions Treated ingrown toenails ankle sprains ...

  3. Medical Service

    Geriatrics

    entia, Depression, Memory Loss Urinary and Bowel Incontinence Foot Ulcers and Other Slow Healing ...

  4. Physician

    Heather MacAdam

    Pediatric Emergency Medicine Physician The Brooklyn Hospital Center 121 DeKalb Avenue Brooklyn NY 11201 Specialty:  Pediatric Emergency Medicine Medical School:  University of Pennsylvania School of Medicine Internship:  Jackson Memorial Hospital Residenc ...

  5. Heart Disease

    tent above is based on Adam Health Content, for  more details related to  ...

  6. Diabetes

    el.   The content above is based on Adam Health Content, for  more details related ...

  7. Article

    Saturday in the Park! Annual health fair in Fort Greene Park helps us keep Brooklyn healthy.

    r prostate cancer). Dental and foot screenings, HIV/AIDS education, infant CPR ...

  8. Article

    Saturday In The Park-- TBHC Health Fair Emphasizes Wellness and Prevention

    tal, glucose, blood pressure, cholesterol, postural, foot, PSA, and BMI ...

  9. Article

    Building a Better Health Care Delivery System for Brooklyn Communities

    work.  The report covers 15 zip codes, including Bedford Stuyvesant, Bushwick, Bro ...

  10. Article

    New Report on Health Needs, Gaps and Barriers to Care in North and Central Brooklyn Released in Conjunction with Proposed Redesign of Brooklyn’s Health Care System

    oklyn Perinatal Network.  The report covers 15 zip codes, including Bedford Stu ...

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