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Compression fractures of the back

Definition

Compression fractures of the back are broken vertebrae. Vertabrae are the bones of the spine.

Alternative Names

Vertebral compression fractures

Causes

Osteoporosis is the most common cause of this type of fracture. Osteoporosis is a disease in which bones become fragile. Usually, the bone loses calcium and other minerals.

Having many fractures of the vertabrae can lead to kyphosis. This is a hump-like curvature of the spine.

Symptoms

Compression fractures can occur suddenly. This can cause severe back pain.

Compression fractures due to osteoporosis may cause no symptoms at first. Often, they are discovered when x-rays of the spine are done for other reasons. Over time, the following symptoms may occur:

Pressure on the spinal cord from hunched over posture can, in rare cases, cause:

Exams and Tests

Your doctor will perform a physical exam. This may show:

A spine x-ray shows at least one compressed vertebra that is shorter than the other vertebrae.

Other tests that may be done:

Treatment

Most compression fractures are seen in older people with osteoporosis. These fractures often do not cause injury to the spinal cord. The condition is usually treated with medicines and calcium supplements to prevent further fractures.

Pain may be treated with:

Other treatments may include:

Surgery may be done if you have severe and disabling pain for more than 2 months that does not get better with other treatments. Surgery can include:

Other surgery may be done to remove bone if the fracture is due to a tumor.

After surgery you may need:

Outlook (Prognosis)

Most compression fractures due to injury heal in 8 to 10 weeks with rest, wearing of a brace, and pain medicines. However, recovery can take much longer if surgery was done.

Fractures due to osteoporosis often become less painful with rest and pain medicines. Some fractures, though, can lead to long-term (chronic) pain and disability.

Medicines to treat osteoporosis can help prevent future fractures. However, medicines cannot reverse damage that has already occurred.

For compression fractures caused by tumors, the outcome depends on the type of tumor involved. Tumors that involve the spine include:

Possible Complications

Complications may include:

When to Contact a Medical Professional

Call your health care provider if:

Prevention

Treating and preventing osteoporosis is the most effective way to prevent these fractures.

References

National Osteoporosis Foundation. 2013 Clinician's Guide to Prevention and Treatment of Osteoporosis. 2013.

Cornell CN, Sculco TP. Orthopedic disorders. In: Duthie EH, Katz PR, Malone ML, eds. Practice of Geriatrics. 4th ed. Philadelphia, Pa: Elsevier Saunders; 2007:chap 37.

Klazen CA, Lohle PN, de Vries J, et al. Vertebroplasty versus conservative treatment in acute osteoporotic vertebral compression fractures (Vertos II): an open-label randomised trial. Lancet. 2010 Sep 25;376(9746):1085-92.

Wardlaw D, Cummings SR, Van Meirhaeghe J, et al. Efficacy and safety of balloon kyphoplasty compared with non-surgical care for vertebral compression fracture (FREE): a randomised controlled trial. Lancet. 2009;373(9668):1016-24.



Review Date: 10/14/2013
Reviewed By: C. Benjamin Ma, MD, Assistant Professor, Chief, Sports Medicine and Shoulder Service, UCSF Department of Orthopaedic Surgery. Also reviewed by David Zieve, MD, MHA, Bethanne Black, and the A.D.A.M. Editorial team.
The information provided herein should not be used during any medical emergency or for the diagnosis or treatment of any medical condition. A licensed medical professional should be consulted for diagnosis and treatment of any and all medical conditions. Links to other sites are provided for information only -- they do not constitute endorsements of those other sites. © 1997- A.D.A.M., Inc. Any duplication or distribution of the information contained herein is strictly prohibited.
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