Primary tabs

Did you mean
team held come

Search results

  1. Health Library

    Sites with Brooklyn header: In-Depth Reports http://tbh-se3.adam.com/content.aspx?productId=10 Wellness Tools< http://tbh-se3.adam.com/content.aspx?productId=20 > Health Risk Assessments< http://tbh-se3.adam.com/content.aspx?productId ...

  2. Medical Service

    Head & Neck Surgery

    The Brooklyn Hospital Center's Division of Head and Neck Surgery manages the diagnosis and surgical treatment of benign and malignant tumors of the head and neck. Staffed by a team of highly capable sur ...

  3. Medical Service

    Otolaryngology (ENT)

    ring, balance, smell, taste, voice, speech and language. Common ENT Conditions and Services head and neck inf ... cer papillomas spasmodic dysphonia throat infections vocal fold nodules Head ...

  4. Medical Service

    Pediatric Surgery

    anomalies and tumors of the head, neck, chest, abdomen and pelvis ...

  5. Medical Service

    Pediatric Emergency Care

    sicians:  Noah Kondamudi Haamid Chamdawala Melissa Hersh Majo Joseph Heather MacAdam ...

  6. Medical Service

    Allergy & Immunology

    rrhea, headache, runny nose itching of the nose, mouth, throat, skin, or any ...

  7. Medical Service

    Neurology

    disorders neck and back pain stroke headaches carpal tunnel syndrome Featured ...

  8. Medical Service

    Plastic Surgery

    years of specialty training in head and neck surgery and facial pla ... of the head and neck provides the facial plastic surgeon with a strong foc ...

  9. Medical Service

    Nuclear Medicine

    including one single-head and three dual-head gamma cameras. We are als ...

  10. Medical Service

    Pediatric Genetics

    lude: unexplained developmental/speech delays or mental retardation small head siz ...

Pages

Search | The Brooklyn Hospital Center
 

Primary tabs

Did you mean
team both come

Search results

  1. Medical Service Parent

    Cancer Care

    cer, but being aware of your body and seeking medical care when you start to notice ...

  2. Heart Disease

    tent above is based on Adam Health Content, for  more details related to  ... .599.6200   HEALTH RESOURCES Wellness for Life Club   What is Your  BODY MASS IND ...

  3. Diabetes

    el.   The content above is based on Adam Health Content, for  more details related ... t is Your  BODY MASS INDEX >   Need Help Losing Weight?  Visit our Wei ...

  4. Article

    Cared For — Body and Mind

    When I woke up in the middle of the night with a very painful "charley horse" in my calf after a trip to Washington DC, I thought nothing of it. I just figured I had strained it from the active day, no big deal. But the pain lingered on, intensi ...

  5. Medical Service

    Pediatric Emergency Care

    sicians:  Noah Kondamudi Haamid Chamdawala Melissa Hersh Majo Joseph Heather MacAdam ...

  6. Medical Service

    Otolaryngology (ENT)

    us disease swallowing and voice disorders snoring and sleep apnea foreign body ... d and Neck Surgery foreign body removal infections, cysts, lesions and masses ...

  7. Medical Service

    Dermatology

    n and body, offering skin care for the entire family. Not all skin conditions ... cer, ethnicity matters Malignant melanomas can appear anywhere on the body ...

  8. Medical Service

    Allergy & Immunology

    is oversensitive in a person with allergies. When the body recognizes an all ...

  9. Medical Service

    Wound Care

    O” therapy is a medical treatment that enhances the body’s natural healing ...

  10. Medical Service

    Palliative Care

    decisions Help improving your body’s tolerance for medications Coordination ...

Pages

HIV/AIDS

Definition

HIV infection is a condition that can gradually destroy the immune system, which makes it harder for the body to fight infections. When this happens, the person has AIDS (acquired immune deficiency syndrome).

Alternative Names

HIV infection; Infection – HIV; Human immunodeficiency virus; Acquired immune deficiency syndrome

Causes

Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) causes HIV infection and AIDS. The virus attacks the immune system. As the immune system weakens, the body is vulnerable to life-threatening infections and cancers. Once a person has the virus, it stays inside the body for life.

The virus is spread (transmitted) person-to-person in any of the following ways:

The virus is not spread by:

HIV and blood or organ donation:

People at high risk of getting HIV include:

After HIV infects the body, the virus has been found in saliva, tears, nervous system tissue and spinal fluid, blood, semen (including pre-seminal fluid, which is the liquid that comes out before ejaculation), vaginal fluid, and breast milk. Only blood, semen, vaginal secretions, and breast milk have been shown to transmit infection to others.

Symptoms

Symptoms related to acute HIV infection (when a person is first infected) are often flu-like:

Many people have no symptoms when they are diagnosed with HIV.

Acute HIV infection progresses over a few weeks to months to become an asymptomatic HIV infection (no symptoms). This stage can last 10 years or longer. During this period, the person can still spread the virus to others.

Almost all people infected with HIV, if they are not treated, will develop AIDS. A small group of patients develop AIDS very slowly or never at all. These patients are called nonprogressors. Many seem to have genes that prevent the virus from significantly damaging their immune system.

People with AIDS have had their immune system damaged by HIV. They are very susceptible to (easily get) infections that do not normally develop in people with a healthy immune system. These infections are called opportunistic infections.

Common symptoms are:

Exams and Tests

The HIV ELISA and HIV Western blot tests detect antibodies to the HIV virus in the blood. Both tests must be positive to confirm an HIV infection. Antibodies are proteins made by the body's immune system when it detects harmful substances, such as the HIV virus.
A complete blood count (CBC) and white blood cell differential may also show abnormalities.

Persons with AIDS usually have regular blood tests to check their CD4 cell count. CD4 cells are a type of T cell. T cells are one kind of cell of the immune system. They are also called "helper cells."  A CD4 cell count that is lower than normal may be a sign that the virus is damaging the immune system. (A normal CD4 count is from 500 to 1,500 cells/mm3 of blood.)

When the CD4 count gets too low, the risk of infections and some types of cancer increases.

Other tests that may be done include:

Treatment

There is no cure for AIDS at this time. But treatments are available to manage symptoms. Treatment can also improve the quality and length of life for those who have already developed symptoms.

Antiretroviral therapy suppresses the replication of the HIV virus in the body. A combination of antiretroviral drugs, called antiretroviral therapy (ART), also known as highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART), is very effective in reducing the amount of  HIV in the bloodstream. This is measured by the viral load (how much free virus is found in the blood). Preventing the virus from reproducing (replicating) can improve T-cell counts and help the immune system recover from HIV infection.

People on ART with suppressed levels of HIV can still transmit the virus to others through sex or by sharing needles. With ART, if the level of HIV remains suppressed and CD4 count remains high (above 200 cells/mm3), life can be prolonged and improved.

HIV can become resistant to one combination of ART. This is most true in patients who do not take their medications on schedule every day. Tests can check whether an HIV strain is resistant to a particular drug. This information can be useful in finding the best drug combination and for adjusting the drug combination when it starts to fail.

When HIV becomes resistant to HAART, other drug combinations must be used to try to suppress the resistant HIV strain of HIV. There are a variety of new drugs on the market for treating drug-resistant HIV.

Treatment with ART has complications. Each drug has its own side effects. Common side effects are:

When used for a long time, these drugs increase the risk of heart attack, perhaps by increasing the levels of cholesterol and glucose (sugar) in the blood.

Persons on ART are monitored by their health care provider for possible side effects. Blood tests measuring CD4 counts and HIV viral load will likely be done every 3 months. The goal is to get the CD4 count close to normal and to suppress the amount of HIV virus in the blood to a level where it cannot be detected.

Medicines may be prescribed to treat problems related to AIDS such as anemia, low white cell count, and to prevent opportunistic infections.

Support Groups

Joining a support group where members share common experiences and problems can often help the emotional stress of having a long-term illness.

Outlook (Prognosis)

At this time, there is no cure for AIDS. It is always fatal without treatment. In the U.S., most patients survive many years after diagnosis because of treatment with HAART. New medicines are continually being developed.

Possible Complications

When a person is infected with HIV, the virus slowly begins to destroy that person's immune system. How fast this occurs differs in each individual. Treatment with HAART can help slow or halt the destruction of the immune system.

Once the immune system is severely damaged, that person has AIDS, and can now get infections and cancers that most healthy persons would not get. Doctors have found that when CD4 falls below certain counts, specific types of infections and cancers can develop.  

When to Contact a Medical Professional

Call for an appointment with your health care provider if you have any of the risk factors for HIV infection. Also call if you develop symptoms of AIDS. By law, the results of HIV testing must be kept confidential. Your health care provider will review test results with you.

Prevention

Preventing HIV/AIDS:

Safer sex practices, such as using latex condoms, are effective in preventing HIV transmission. But there is a risk of getting the infection, even with the use of condoms. Abstinence is the only sure way to prevent sexual transmission of HIV.

HIV-positive patients who are taking antiretroviral medicines are less likely to transmit the virus.

The U.S. blood supply is among the safest in the world. Nearly all people infected with HIV through blood transfusions received those transfusions before 1985, the year HIV testing began for all donated blood.

If you believe you have been exposed to HIV, seek medical attention right away. Do not delay. Starting antiviral medicines can reduce the chances that you will be infected. This is called post-exposure prophylaxis (PEP). It has been used to prevent transmission in health care workers injured by needle sticks.

References

Quinn TC. Epidemiology of human immunodeficiency virus infection and acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. In: Goldman L, Schafer AI, eds. Goldman’s Cecil Medicine. 24th ed. Philadelphia, Pa.: Elsevier Saunders; 2011:chap 392.

Sterling TR, Chaisson RE. General clinical manifestations of human immunodeficiency virus infection (including the acute retroviral syndrome and oral, cutaneous, renal, ocular, metabolic, and cardiac diseases). In: Mandell GL, Bennett JE, Dolin R, eds. Mandell, Douglas, and Bennett’s Principles and Practice of Infectious Diseases. 7th ed. Philadelphia, Pa.: Elsevier Churchill-Livingstone; 2009:chap 121.



Review Date: 5/19/2013
Reviewed By: Jatin M. Vyas, MD, PhD, Assistant Professor in Medicine, Harvard Medical School; Assistant in Medicine, Division of Infectious Disease, Department of Medicine, Massachusetts General Hospital. Also reviewed by David Zieve, MD, MHA, Bethanne Black, and the A.D.A.M. Editorial team.
The information provided herein should not be used during any medical emergency or for the diagnosis or treatment of any medical condition. A licensed medical professional should be consulted for diagnosis and treatment of any and all medical conditions. Links to other sites are provided for information only -- they do not constitute endorsements of those other sites. © 1997- A.D.A.M., Inc. Any duplication or distribution of the information contained herein is strictly prohibited.
adam.com
Search | The Brooklyn Hospital Center
 

Primary tabs

Did you mean
team food come

Search results

  1. Medical Service

    Orthopaedic Services

    of the foot, knee, shoulder, hip, hand or other joints. We also treat bone ... advanced reconstructive surgery of the foot, ankle, knee and sho ... er ligament tears Foot and Ankle achilles tendonitis and tears peroneal ten ...

  2. Medical Service

    Podiatry

    The Division of Podiatry offers high-quality, state-of-the-art therapies to treat a wide range of foot and ankle disorders. Conditions Treated at The Brooklyn Hospital Center ingrown toenails ankle sprains ...

  3. Medical Service

    Pediatric Emergency Care

    sicians:  Noah Kondamudi Haamid Chamdawala Melissa Hersh Majo Joseph Heather MacAdam ...

  4. Medical Service

    Geriatrics

    ression, memory loss urinary and bowel incontinence foot ulcers and oth ...

  5. Health Library

    Sites with Brooklyn header: In-Depth Reports http://tbh-se3.adam.com/content.aspx?productId=10 Wellness Tools< http://tbh-se3.adam.com/content.aspx?productId=20 > Health Risk Assessments< http://tbh-se3.adam.com/content.aspx?productId ...

  6. Heart Disease

    tent above is based on Adam Health Content, for  more details related to  ...

  7. Diabetes

    el.   The content above is based on Adam Health Content, for  more details related ...

  8. Patient Portal

    e invitation code provided to you and click “Agree” to the release of inf ...

  9. Simulation Center

    TBHC has developed a multimillion dollar, state-of-the-art Simulation Facility where residents receive training on laparoscopy, intubation, central line placement, code simulations and obstetric deliveries.   ...

  10. Event

    Healthy Back 2 School Fair!

    e blood pressure and foot screenings • Health insurance information • Sch ...

Pages