Primary tabs

Did you mean
team held come

Search results

  1. Medical Service

    Head & Neck Surgery

    The Brooklyn Hospital Center's Division of Head and Neck Surgery manages the diagnosis and surgical treatment of benign and malignant tumors of the head and neck. Staffed by a team of highly capable sur ...

  2. Medical Service

    Otolaryngology (ENT)

    ring, balance, smell, taste, voice, speech and language. Common ENT Conditions and Services head and neck inf ... cer papillomas spasmodic dysphonia throat infections vocal fold nodules Head ...

  3. Medical Service

    Pediatric Surgery

    anomalies and tumors of the head, neck, chest, abdomen and pelvis ...

  4. Medical Service

    Allergy & Immunology

    rrhea, headache, runny nose itching of the nose, mouth, throat, skin, or any ...

  5. Medical Service

    Plastic Surgery

    years of specialty training in head and neck surgery and facial pla ... of the head and neck provides the facial plastic surgeon with a strong foc ...

  6. Medical Service

    Neurology

    disorders neck and back pain stroke headaches carpal tunnel syndrome ...

  7. Medical Service

    Nuclear Medicine

    including one single-head and three dual-head gamma cameras. We are als ...

  8. Medical Service

    Pediatric Genetics

    lude: unexplained developmental/speech delays or mental retardation small head siz ...

  9. Medical Service

    Speech & Hearing

    rehabilitation for head and neck cancer patients Voice disorders (vocal nod ...

  10. Heart Disease

    tent above is based on Adam Health Content, for  more details related to  ...

Pages

Search | The Brooklyn Hospital Center
 

Primary tabs

Did you mean
team both come

Search results

  1. Medical Service Parent

    Cancer Care

    cer, but being aware of your body and seeking medical care when you start to notice ...

  2. Heart Disease

    tent above is based on Adam Health Content, for  more details related to  ... .599.6200   HEALTH RESOURCES Wellness for Life Club   What is Your  BODY MASS IND ...

  3. Diabetes

    el.   The content above is based on Adam Health Content, for  more details related ... t is Your  BODY MASS INDEX >   Need Help Losing Weight?  Visit our Wei ...

  4. Article

    Cared For — Body and Mind

    When I woke up in the middle of the night with a very painful "charley horse" in my calf after a trip to Washington DC, I thought nothing of it. I just figured I had strained it from the active day, no big deal. But the pain lingered on, intensi ...

  5. Medical Service

    Otolaryngology (ENT)

    us disease swallowing and voice disorders snoring and sleep apnea foreign body ... d and Neck Surgery foreign body removal infections, cysts, lesions and masses ...

  6. Medical Service

    Dermatology

    n and body, offering skin care for the entire family. Not all skin conditions ... cer, ethnicity matters Malignant melanomas can appear anywhere on the body ...

  7. Medical Service

    Allergy & Immunology

    is oversensitive in a person with allergies. When the body recognizes an all ...

  8. Medical Service

    Wound Care

    O” therapy is a medical treatment that enhances the body’s natural healing ...

  9. Medical Service

    Palliative Care

    decisions Help improving your body’s tolerance for medications Coordination ...

  10. Medical Service

    Gastroenterology

    o allows for removal of foreign body impacted in the esophagus col ...

Pages

Skin cancer

Also listed as: Cancer - skin

Signs and Symptoms
What Causes It?
Who's Most At Risk?
What to Expect at Your Provider's Office
Treatment Options
Prognosis/Possible Complications
Following Up
Supporting Research
  

Skin cancer is usually a result of too much exposure to the sun. While skin cancer is the most common form of cancer, many types are both preventable and treatable. There are five different types of skin cancer:

  • Basal cell carcinoma is the most common form and accounts for 90% of all skin cancers. It starts in the basal cells, at the bottom of the outer skin layer and is caused by long-term exposure to sunlight. It is the most easily treated.
  • Squamous cell carcinoma is the second most common type. It starts in the outer skin layer, eventually penetrating the underlying tissue if not treated. It is easily treated when found early, but in a small percentage of cases this cancer spreads  to other parts of the body.
  • Malignant melanoma is the most serious type of skin cancer and is responsible for the most deaths. However, it can be cured if it is diagnosed and removed early. Melanoma starts in moles or other growths on normal skin.
  • Kaposi's sarcoma (KS) is caused by a virus in the herpes family. An aggressive AIDS-related form affects about one third of people with AIDS. A more slow-growing form occurs in elderly men of Italian or Jewish ancestry.

Signs and Symptoms

Basal cell carcinoma:

  • Shiny bump that is pearly or translucent
  • Flat, flesh-colored lesion appearing anywhere on the body

Squamous cell carcinoma:

  • Hard, red nodule on face, lips, ears, neck, hands, arms
  • Flat lesion with scaly surface

Melanoma:

  • Change in color, size, shape or texture of a mole
  • Skin lesion with irregular borders
  • Growth of an existing skin lesion
  • Large brown spot with darker speckles
  • Hard, dome-shaped bumps anywhere on your body

The only way to know for sure whether a mole or spot on your skin is cancer is to have your doctor look at it.

What Causes It?

Exposure to ultraviolet radiation from the sun is the main cause of skin cancer. Skin cancer may also be due to genetics or radiation treatments. A virus causes Kaposi's sarcoma.

Who's Most At Risk?

People at risk for developing skin cancer may have the following conditions or characteristics:

  • Fair skin
  • Spend a lot of time outdoors in work or leisure activities
  • History of sunburn
  • Family history of skin cancer
  • Many moles
  • Are over age 40
  • Large dark-colored birthmark known as congenital melanocytic nevus
  • Pre-cancerous skin lesions, such as actinic keratosis
  • HIV-positive -- a risk for Kaposi's sarcoma specifically

What to Expect at Your Provider's Office

Your doctor will examine your skin for new, changed, or unusual moles. Your doctor may use a dermatoscope, which is for close examination of skin growths. If your doctor suspects cancer, you will have a biopsy (sample of the skin). A biopsy can confirm whether or not you have skin cancer.

Treatment Options

Prevention

In most cases, you can prevent skin cancer. If you are at high risk, stay out of the sun. When you have to be in the sun, protect yourself by covering up, wearing a hat, and applying sunscreen with an SPF of at least 30. You should also have regular skin cancer screenings with your primary health care provider or dermatologist.

Treatment Plan

The primary goals of treatment are to remove the cancerous growth and stop the spread of the disease.

Drug Therapies

Melanoma that is deep or has spread and AIDS-related Kaposi's sarcoma may be treated with chemotherapy. Also, in cases where cancer is found only in the top layer of skin, you may receive topical creams or lotions containing chemotherapy drugs.

Surgical and Other Procedures

Most skin cancer can be surgically removed. Cryotherapy (freezing), topical chemotherapy, or radiation can also treat most skin cancer. If the cancer is on or close to the skin's surface, you may receive photodynamic therapy (laser).

Complementary and Alternative Therapies

Alternative treatments are aimed at preventing rather than treating skin cancer. Some CAM treatments may reduce the side effects of conventional treatments, such as chemotherapy.

You should never rely on alternative therapies alone for treating skin cancer. Make sure all of your doctors know if you plan to use any CAM therapies along with conventional cancer treatments. Some CAM therapies can interfere with conventional cancer therapies.

Nutrition

Eating certain foods may help protect against skin cancer. It is hard to test the role of food in preventing various skin cancer, but several studies have looked at antioxidants (including vitamin C, vitamin E, beta-carotene, zinc, and vitamin A), folic acid, fats and proteins, and a variety of whole foods. While results are not absolutely clear, antioxidants may offer some protection from skin cancer. Foods such as fish, beans, carrots, chard, pumpkin, cabbage, broccoli, and vegetables containing beta-carotene and vitamin C may also help protect skin. Studies on animals suggest that substances found in foods such as soy and flaxseed may help fight cancer in general. That may include the spread of melanoma from one part of the body to another.

Other substances found in plants may help protect your skin from sun-related damage:

  • Apigenin, a flavonoid found in vegetables and fruits, including broccoli, celery, onions, tomatoes, apples, cherries and grapes, and in tea and wine
  • Curcumin, found in the spice turmeric
  • Resveratrol, found in grape skins, red wine, and peanuts
  • Quercetin, a flavonoid found in apples and onions

Selenium has been promoted as an antioxidant that might help prevent skin cancer. One study, however, suggests that selenium might actually increase the risk of developing squamous cell cancer. Talk to your doctor before taking a selenium supplement.

If you have skin cancer, you should always talk with your doctor before taking any supplements or making any changes to your diet. Some supplements or possibly even some foods may interfere with some drugs used to treat cancer.

Herbs

The use of herbs is a time-honored approach to strengthening the body and treating disease. Herbs, however, can trigger side effects and can interact with other herbs, supplements, or medications. For these reasons, take herbs with care, under the supervision of a health care provider. Many herbs and herbal combinations are used to prevent and treat cancer in general. However, you should never use herbs alone to treat any kind of cancer. Remember that certain herbs and supplements can change the way medications, including chemotherapy, act in your body. Make sure you tell your conventional and alternative health care providers about all the supplements, therapies, and medications you are using. Do not take any herbs or supplements without first talking to your oncologist.

  • Green tea (Camellia sinensis) contains polyphenols, chemicals that are potent antioxidants. Antioxidants get rid of particles in the body called free radicals, which damage DNA. Researchers think free radicals may play a role in cancer. The main polyphenol in green tea is epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG). Scientific studies suggest that EGCG and other green tea polyphenols may prevent skin tumors from starting or growing. Because green tea contains caffeine, it may interact with several other medications and may not be safe for people with certain medical conditions and for pregnant women. Ask your doctor before taking a green tea supplement or having more than one cup of tea per day.
  • Other herbs with antioxidant and skin-protecting effects include bilberry (Vaccinium myrtillus), ginkgo (Ginkgo biloba), milk thistle (Silybum marianum), ginger (Zingiber officinale), and hawthorn (Crataegus laevigata). Although there are no scientific studies on using these herbs to treat skin cancer, they have been used traditionally to protect the skin. Each of these herbs may interact with other medications, including blood-thinners such as warfarin (Coumadin), and may not be safe for someone with another medical condition. Ask your doctor before taking any of them.
  • For Kaposi's sarcoma, some naturopaths recommend a paste made from lemon balm (Melissa officinalis) cream; several drops of Hoxsey-like formula, a mixture of herbs and potassium iodide; and powdered turmeric. Don't use this mixture without your doctor's supervision.

Homeopathy

Many people with cancer use homeopathy as an additional therapy, along with conventional medicine. An experienced homeopath considers your individual case and recommends treatments that address both your underlying condition and any symptoms you may be having.

Acupuncture

While acupuncture is not used as a treatment for cancer itself, evidence suggests it can help relieve symptoms such as the nausea and vomiting that often come with chemotherapy. Some studies have indicated that acupuncture may help reduce pain and shortness of breath.

Acupuncture needles should never be used on an area of skin where there is cancer.

Acupressure -- pressing on rather than needling acupuncture points -- has also helped control breathlessness. Acupressure is a technique that you can learn and use to treat yourself.

Some acupuncturists prefer to wait until the person has finished conventional medical cancer therapy. Others will provide acupuncture or herbal therapy during chemotherapy or radiation.

Acupuncturists treat cancer patients based on an individualized assessment of the excesses and deficiencies of qi located in various meridians. In many cases of cancer-related symptoms, a qi deficiency is usually detected in the spleen or kidney meridians.

Prognosis/Possible Complications

Prognosis varies depending on the type of skin cancer being treated:

  • Basal cell carcinoma: generally excellent with conventional treatment.
  • Squamous cell carcinoma: excellent for small lesions removed early and completely.
  • Malignant melanoma: 5-year survival is almost 100% for very superficial lesions removed early. However, thick lesions and melanoma that has spread to other organs have poor prognosis.
  • Kaposi's sarcoma: good for superficial lesions of the slow-growing form in the elderly of Italian or Jewish ancestry. The course of AIDS-related Kaposi's sarcoma depends on the status of the person's immune system.

Following Up

See your health care provider regularly for screenings to check for a recurrence of skin cancer.

Supporting Research

Alimi D, Rubino C, Leandri EP, Brule SF. Analgesic effects of auricular acupuncture for cancer pain [letter]. J Pain Symptom Manage. 2000;19(2):81-82.

Asgari MM, Maruti SS, Kushi LH, White E. A cohort study of vitamin D intake and melanoma risk. J Invest Dermatol. 2009 Jul;129(7):1675-80.

Asgari MM, Maruti SS, Kushi LH, White E. Antioxidant supplementation and risk of incident melanomas: results of a large prospective cohort study. Arch Dermatol. 2009 Aug;145(8):879-82.

Baglia MS, Katiyar SK. Chemoprevention of photocarcinogenesis by selected dietary botanicals. Photochem Photobiol Sci. 2006 Feb;5(2):243-53.

Duffield-Lillico AJ, Slate EH, Reid ME, Turnbull BW, et al. Selenium supplementation and secondary prevention of nonmelanoma skin cancer in a randomized trial. J Natl Cancer Inst. 2004 Feb. 18;96(4):333-4; author reply 334.

Es S, Kuttan G, Kc P, Kuttan R. Effect of homeopathic medicines on transplanted tumors in mice. Asian Pac J Cancer Prev. 2007 Jul-Sep;8(3):390-4.

Ezzo J, Berman B, Hadhazy VA, Jadad AR, Lao L, Singh BB. Is acupuncture effective for the treatment of chronic pain? A systematic review. Pain. 2000;86:217-225.

Frieling UM, Schaumberg DA, Kupper TS, Muntwyler J, Hennekens CH. A randomized, 12-year primary-prevention trial of beta carotene supplementation for nonmelanoma skin cancer in the Physicians' Health Study. Arch Dermatol. 2000;136(2):179-184.

Katiyar SK, Ahmad N, Mukhtar H. Green tea and skin. Arch Dermatol. 2000;136(8):989-94.

Katiyar S, Elmets CA, Katiyar SK. Green tea and skin cancer: photoimmunology, angiogenesis and DNA repair. J NutrBiochem. 2007 May;18(5):287-96. Review.

Maeda K, Naitou T, Umishio K, Fukuhara T, Motoyama A. A novel melanin inhibitor: hydroperoxytraxastane-type triterpene from flowers of Arnica montana. BiolPharm Bull. 2007 May;30(5):873-9.

Nichols JA, Katiyar SK. Skin photoprotection by natural polyphenols: anti-inflammatory, antioxidant and DNA repair mechanisms. Arch Dermatol Res. 2009 Nov 7. [Epub ahead of print]

Nihal M, Ahsan H, Siddiqui IA, Mukhtar H, Ahmad N, Wood GS. Epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG) sensitizes melanoma cells to interferon induced growth inhibition in a mouse model of human melanoma. Cell Cycle. 2009 Jul 1;8(13):2057-63.

Pan CX, Morrison RS, Ness J, Fugh-Berman A, Leipzig RM. Complementary and alternative medicine in the management of pain, dyspnea, and nausea and vomiting near the end of life: a systematic review. J Pain Symptom Manage. 2000;20(5):374-387.

Rusciani L, Proietti I, Paradisi A, Rusciani A, Guerriero G, Mammone A, De Gaetano A, Lippa S. Recombinant interferon alpha-2b and coenzyme Q10 as a postsurgical adjuvant therapy for melanoma: a 3-year trial with recombinant interferon-alpha and 5-year follow-up. Melanoma Res. 2007 Jun;17(3):177-83.

Svobodová A, Zdarilová A, Vostálová J. Lonicera caerulea and Vaccinium myrtillus fruit polyphenols protect HaCaT keratinocytes against UVB-induced phototoxic stress and DNA damage. J Dermatol Sci. 2009 Dec;56(3):196-204.

Shen J, Wenger N, Glaspy J, et al. Electroacupuncture for control of myeloablative chemotherapy-induced emesis. JAMA. 2000;284(21):2755-2761.

van Dam RM, Huang Z, Giovannucci E, et al. Diet and basal cell carcinoma of the skin in a prospective cohort of men. Am J Clin Nutr. 2000;71(1):135-141.

Yusuf N, Irby C, Katiyar SK, Elmets CA. Photoprotective effects of green tea polyphenols. Photodermatol Photoimmunol Photomed. 2007 Feb;23(1):48-56. Review.


Review Date: 1/5/2012
Reviewed By: Steven D. Ehrlich, NMD, Solutions Acupuncture, a private practice specializing in complementary and alternative medicine, Phoenix, AZ. Review provided by VeriMed Healthcare Network.
The information provided herein should not be used during any medical emergency or for the diagnosis or treatment of any medical condition. A licensed medical professional should be consulted for diagnosis and treatment of any and all medical conditions. Links to other sites are provided for information only -- they do not constitute endorsements of those other sites. © 1997- A.D.A.M., Inc. Any duplication or distribution of the information contained herein is strictly prohibited.
adam.com
Search | The Brooklyn Hospital Center
 

Primary tabs

Did you mean
team food come

Search results

  1. Medical Service

    Orthopaedic Services

    of the foot, knee, shoulder, hip, hand or other joints. We also treat bone ... advanced reconstructive surgery of the foot, ankle, knee and sho ... er ligament tears Foot and Ankle achilles tendonitis and tears peroneal ten ...

  2. Medical Service

    Podiatry

    The Division of Podiatry offers high-quality, state-of-the-art therapies to treat a wide range of foot and ankle disorders. Conditions Treated at The Brooklyn Hospital Center ingrown toenails ankle sprains ...

  3. Medical Service

    Geriatrics

    ression, memory loss urinary and bowel incontinence foot ulcers and oth ...

  4. Heart Disease

    tent above is based on Adam Health Content, for  more details related to  ...

  5. Diabetes

    el.   The content above is based on Adam Health Content, for  more details related ...

  6. Patient Portal

    e invitation code provided to you and click “Agree” to the release of inf ...

  7. Simulation Center

    TBHC has developed a multimillion dollar, state-of-the-art Simulation Facility where residents receive training on laparoscopy, intubation, central line placement, code simulations and obstetric deliveries.   ...

  8. Event

    Healthy Back 2 School Fair!

    e blood pressure and foot screenings • Health insurance information • Sch ...

  9. Article

    Saturday in the Park! Annual health fair in Fort Greene Park helps us keep Brooklyn healthy.

    r prostate cancer). Dental and foot screenings, HIV/AIDS education, infant CPR ...

  10. Article

    Saturday In The Park-- TBHC Health Fair Emphasizes Wellness and Prevention

    tal, glucose, blood pressure, cholesterol, postural, foot, PSA, and BMI ...

Pages